BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Adler-Nissen, Rebecca. “Stigma Management in International Relations: Transgressive Identities, Norms and Order in International Society.” International Organization No. 68 (2014): 143-176. 2. Blinken, Tony. “Ukraine in the White House Press Briefing” (July 28, 2014) // http://ukraine.usembassy.gov/statements/wh-ukraine-07282014.html . 3. Brzoska, Michael. “Putting More Teeth in UN Arms Embargoes”: 125–144. In: D. Cortright and G. A. Lopez, eds. Smart Sanctions: Targeting Economic Statecraft . Rowman and Littlefield
Viljar Veebel and Raul Markus
References  Стоилова, В., Хуманитарна интервенция: право на интервенция или практика, Сборник от Годишна научна конференция „Европейското бъдеще на България. Правни аспекти”, София, 2013 г.  Белова, Г., Конфликтите - международноправни аспекти, Сиела, С., 2007, стр. 79; See: United Nations, Office of the Spokesman for the Secretary-General. "Use of Sanctions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter"  Александров, Е., Речник по международни отношения, Тракия-М, С., 2001, стр. 356  UN
Christian Năsulea, Beatrice Nicolle Crețu and Diana Florentina Spînu
References Baker, P. (2014) U.S. Tightens Crimea Embargo to Pressure Russia, Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/20/world/europe/us-tightens-crimea-embargo-topressure-russia.html BBC News (2014) Japan steps up sanctions as tensions rise with Russia, Available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-29345451 BBC News (2014) Russia hits West with food import ban in sanctions row, Available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-28687172 CBC News (2014) Canada levels new sanctions against
Magda B. Leichtova
In this paper, we borrow the dramaturgical analysis from sociologists and use it to analyze how contemporary Russian elites communicate with the public. It is my goal to analyze the performance of the Russian political elite when presenting the changes caused by the worsening Russo-Western relations over the Ukrainian crisis to the domestic audiences, with focus on the impact of sanctions introduced by the Western countries last year. Which strategies, narratives and symbols remain the same and which are adjusted, erased or newly introduced by the political elite when communicating with the public in order to justify the contemporary situation? We will focus especially on two basic components of the narrative: the symbolic level, particularly the use of history, geopolitics and other symbolic topics to frame the current situation; the pragmatic level, especially adjustment of current strategies and introduction of new plans and partners who will help to manage the new situation. As we will clarify later, our analysis will focus on symbolic arguments used by Vladimir Putin as “the national leader” and pragmatic politics introduced by him as “the president”.
Sylwia Morawska, Błażej Prusak, Przemysław Banasik and Beata Woźniak-Jęchorek
social cost. Journal of Law and Economics , 3 (1), pp. 1-44. Cootler, R., & Ulen, T. (2016). Law and Economics (6th ed.). Berkeley: Berkeley Law Books. Daughety, A. F., & Reinganum, J. F. (2016). Informal sanctions on prosecutors and defendants and the disposition of criminal cases. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 32 (2), 359-394. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/jleo/ewv020 . European Commission Recommendation of 12 March 2014 on a new approach to business failure and insolvency (2014/135/EU). (2014, March 14). OJ L74 , 65
Petar Ivanov Baldzhiev
The Bulgarian law regulates the administrative sanction as a specific sanction for noncompliance with the approved order in the state administration. Its imposition is considered to be an expression of state compulsion and it represents a realization of the administrative responsibility. The article aims to examine the peculiarities of the administrative sanctions imposed in the cases of tax offences, in regard to the specificity of the tax entities. The legislator has provided various administrative sanctions which are mainly systematized in the Administrative Violations and Sanctions Act. Tax legislation does not lay down new types of administrative sanctions but it uses the types provided by the Administrative Violations and Sanctions Act, and namely: public reprimand, fine, temporary deprivation of the right to be exercised a particular profession or to be carried out a particular activity, forfeiture in favour of the state, sanctions in the form of penalty payments imposed on legal entities and sole traders. The typical characteristics and peculiarities of the imposed for tax offences sanctions are the subject of the analysis
Werner Vandenbruwaene, Patricia Popelier and Christine Janssens
The question at hand is located at the intersection of EU law and national constitutional law, and aims to answer the following problem: namely, how to mitigate federal concerns in the context of infringement procedures and financial sanctions under art. 260 TFEU. This article approaches this question both from the perspective of the Commission and the Court of Justice, as well as from the vantage point of the central and regional governments involved. After analysing the composition of the financial sanctions, we cover the involvement of subnational entities in the infringements proceedings in six tiered Member States (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) and the relevant national provisions for the partition of financial sanctions. The conclusions pertain to both the central and regional level and the EU institutions concerned, adhering to the multi-level relationship subjacent to this article.
Jan Obłój and Katarzyna Abramczuk
This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.
The criminal responsibility and the system of sanctioning juvenile offenders is one of fundamental criminal law issues. Individuals who start a criminal career early on are usually not easy to reintegrate into normal life. That is one reason why it is necessary to discuss the problem of juvenile justice in depth. The legal literature in the Czech Republic is devoted to this topic on a large scale, however Hungarian legislation has not yet been analysed fo purposes of comparation. The Czech Republic and Hungary fall under the United Nations categorization to Eastern Europe and therefore certain similar features can be assumed. On the other hand any identified differences may be the basis for future changes of the legislation.
References Aliboni, R. (2005): The geopolitical implications of the European Neighbourhood Policy. European Foreign Affairs Review 10: 1-16. Andrianovna, Anna and Galouchko, Ksenia (2015): ’S & P Cuts Russia’s Rating to Junk; Sanctions and Oil Slump Hammer Ruble’, Bloomberg News (27 January): available at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2015-01-26/russia-credit-rating-cut-to-junk-by-s-p-for-first-time-in-decade.html (27 January 2015). Arkhipov, Ilya and Kravchenko, Stepan (2014): ‘Putin’s Crimea-as-Jerusalem Myth