References Bonderek Z., Rzadkosz S., Smorawiński Z. (1999). Studies on the effectiveness of gas refining. Solidification of Metals and Alloys. 1 (41) Book No. 41 , 40/41. Rzadkosz S. (2001). Influence of the chemical compositions and casting parametrers for the structure and properties of magnesia-tin brass alloys. Archives of Foundry. 1, № 1 (2/2,) 42/2, (in Polish). Kondracki M., Szajnar J. (2007). Possibilities for leaded brass replacement with multi-component brass
A. Bydałek and S. Biernat
A.W. Bydałek and A. Bydałek
. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 6(18), 257-260. ISSN 1642-5308.  Kozana, J., Rzadkosz, S. & Piękoś, M. (2010). Influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the phase γ formation in Cu-Zn alloys. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10(1), 221-225.  Bydałek, A. W. (2001). Assessing the refining abilities of slag by modelling a real process of metal. Journal of Thermal Analysis. 65, 591-597. DOI: 10.1023/ A:1012414110569.  Bydałek, A. W. (2005). The part of carbon in processes of extraction of slags during
B. Zdonek, I. Szypuła, J. Kozłowski and S. Szczęch
References K. Wunnenberg, IISI study on clean steel; La Revue de Metallurgie CIT 9 , 687-692 (2005). Z. Xue, Y. Weng, Z. Li, Zero Inclusion Steel and its Oxide Inclusion Characteristics; steel research int. 76 , 10, 735-739 (2005). L. Holappa, On Physico - chemical and Technical Limits in Clean Steel Production; steel research int. 81 , 10, 869-874 (2010). L. Holappa, S. Nurmi, S. Louhenkilpi, Role of slags in steel refining is it really understood and
A. Babanin, O. Babanina, V. Bilousov, B. Komarov, D. Pashchuk and J. Shalapko
-63.  Beilousov, V.V. (2013). The role of turbulence in the process of continuous refining of steel in the tundish bath caster CCM. In Beilousov V.V., Gonchar B.S., Komarov V.F., Nogovitsin A.V. (Eds.), Modern refractories: resource conservation and use in metallurgical technologies (pp. 157-161). Donetsk: Noulidzh.: Sat. Scien.
T. Merder, M. Saternus and P. Warzecha
Both primary and secondary aluminium have to be refined, especially by barbotage process. To know better the mechanism of blowing argon through aluminium in reactors with rotary impellers, numerical modelling is applied. It allows to obtain useful information like: the level of velocity field or participation of gaseous phase. However, numerical analysis requires choosing the proper model which would describe the physical phenomena occurring in the process. So, AnsysFluent code was used in the research. It allows to calculate the two-phase liquid flow for the 2D and 3D co-ordinate systems. Results of calculations for the 3D case can describe more accurately the spatial picture of the movement trajectory of the blown gas bubbles. Calculations were done for the flow rate of refining gas equal 5 dm3/min and for two cases: when there was no rotation and with 300 rpm rotary impeller speed.
Cavitation erosion studies of steels produced by Electroslag Refining (ESR) and Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD refining) have been carried out. The experiments were conducted using the modified ultrasonically induced cavitation test method. Erosion rates were measured and the morphology of damages under cavitation action was studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy techniques. The present work is aimed at understanding the cavitation erosion behaviour of electroslag refined steel (ESR) compared with the steel produced by Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD refining), commonly used in the production of hydraulic machinery parts (Pelton blades). The results exhibited lower cavitation rate of ESR steel compared with AOD steel, as a consequence of its better mechanical properties and homogeneous and fine-grained microstructure.
Seong Ho Son, Sung Cheol Park, Jin Hwa Kim, Yong Hwan Kim, Man Seung Lee and Jae-Woo Ahn
The tin metal could be retractable from wasted tin scrap, sludge, and wasted electroplated solution hydrometallurgical treatment, and purification process. In order to be used as resource of electronic devices, the retracted crude metal should be purified to the extent of higher than 99.9%. In this study, tin electro-refining process was performed to purify the casted tin crude metal at various experimental conditions: at the current density of 3, 5A/dm2, and in various electrolytes such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and methansulfonic acid. Additional experiment was conducted using Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) in order to investigate the rate determining step of tin electro-refining process. The current efficiency, 65.6%, was achievable at the condition of current density, 5A/dm2, and in the electrolyte of Hydrochloric acid. During tin electro-refining process, impurity dissolved from tin crude metal into the electrolyte was analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), and the result showed the concentration of impurity metal gradually increased. Quantitative analysis on casted tin crude metal showed that it consists of tin with 93.9 wt.% and several impurity metals of Ag, Bi, Pb, Cu, and etc. After tin electro-refining process, the purity of tin increased up to 99.985 wt.%.
Irena O. Dolganova, Igor M. Dolganov, Elena N. Ivashkina, Emilia D. Ivanchina and Rostislav V. Romanovskiy
An approach to modelling of non-stationary catalytic processes of oil refining and petrochemistry is proposed. The computer modelling systems under development take into account the physical and chemical reaction laws, raw materials composition, and catalyst nature. This allows using the software for the optimization of process conditions and equipment design. The models created can be applied for solving complex problems of chemical reactors design; calculation of different variants of industrial plants reconstruction; refining and petrochemicals catalysts selection and testing; catalyst service life prolongation; determination of optimum water supply into the alkanes dehydrogenation reactor; optimization of products separation in the benzene alkylation process.
S. Rzadkosz, A. Garbacz-Klempka, J. Kozana, M. Piękoś and M. Kranc
13 , spec. iss 1, 153-158 (2013).  S. Rzadkosz, M. Kranc, P. Nowicki, M. Piekos, Influence of refining operations onastructure and properties of copper and its selected alloys, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials/ Polish Academy of Sciences. Committee of Metallurgy. Institute of Metallurgy ond Materials Science 54, 2, 299-304 (2009).  F. Romankiewicz, S. Engler, R. Ellerbrok, Giessereiforsuchung nr 1, 1997.  F. Romankiewicz, Modyfikacja miedziijej stopów. Wyd. PAN, Poznan - Zielona Góra 1999.
A.W. Bydałek and P. Schlafka
References  Bydałek, A. (1977). Neue Hutte. Studies on Copper and Copper Alloy Refining Using Calcium Carbide . 12, 663-667.  Bydałek, A.W. (1998). Slag systems in the process of melting copper and its alloys . Monograph 86. Zielona Góra: Technical University of Zielona Góra.  Rzadkosz, S., Kranz, M., Nowick, P. & Piękoś M. (2009). Refining processes of selected copper alloys. Archives of Foundry. 9(2), 29-34.  Wierzbicka, B & Czyż, M. (1999). Brass melting, Acta