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Roman Babko, Tatyana Kuzmina, Grzegorz Łagód and Katarzyna Jaromin-Gleń

L. Toxic effects of heavy metals on the activated sludge protozoan community. Water Res. 1996;30:135-141. DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(95)00124-4. [5] Abraham JV, Butler RD, Sigee DC. Ciliate populations and metals in an activated-sludge plant. Water Res. 1997;31:1103-1111. DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(96)00334-X. [6] Salvadò H, Gracia MP, Amigò JM. Capability of ciliated protozoa as indicators of effluent quality in activated sludge plants. Water Res. 1995;29:1041-1050. [7] Madoni P, Gorbi G, Tajé E. Toxic effect of chemical

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Krzysztof Rychert and Thomas Neu

to infectious diseases. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 95-108. Huws S. A., McBain A. J., Gilbert P. 2005. Protozoan grazing and its impact upon population dynamics in biofilm communities. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98: 238-244. Jackson S. M., Jones E. B. G. 1991. Interactions within biofilms: the disruption of biofilm structure by protozoa. Kieler Meeresforsch. Sonderh. 8: 264-268. Lawrence J. R., Snyder R. A. 1998. Feeding behaviour and grazing impacts of a Euplotes sp. on attached bacteria. Can. J

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Tomasz Mieczan, Dorota Górniak, Aleksander Świątecki, Marek Zdanowski, Monika Tarkowska−Kukuryk and Małgorzata Adamczuk

. BERGER H. 1999. Monograph of Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) .Kulwer,Dordrecht: 1080 pp. BAMFORTH S.S.,WALL D.H. and VIRGINIA R.A. 2005. Distribution and diversity of soil protozoa in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Polar Biology 28: 756-762. BEAVER J.R. and CRISMAN L.T. 1990. Seasonality of planktonic ciliated protozoa in 20 subtropical Florida lakes of varying trophic state. Hydrobiologia 190: 127-135. BINTANJA R. 1995. The local surface energy balance of the Ecology Glacier, King George Island

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Marco Porporato, Giacomo Grillone, Augusto Patetta, Aulo Manino and Daniela Laurino

. DOI: 10.1603/ EC11276 Büchler R., Andonov S., Bienefeld K., Costa C., Hatjina F., Kezic N., Kryger P., Spivak M., Uzunov A., Wilde J. (2013) Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): 1-29. Crane E. (1990) Bees and Beekeeping - Science, Practice and World Resources. Heinemann Newnes. Oxford. 614 pp. Dade H. A. (1962) Anatomy and dissection of the honeybee. Bee Research Association. London. 158 pp. Fries I. (1997) Protozoa. In: Morse R. A

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O. P. Kurnosova, M. V. Arisov and I. M. Odoyevskaya

) K otelnikov , G.A, C hrenov , V.M. (1980): Guidelines for Diagnostic Frequency Helminthiasis in Farm Animals. Moscow (In Russian) K urnosova , О.P. (2014): Distribution of protozoa Lamblia ( Giardia ) sp. among dogs and cats of Moscow. Med. Parasitol .,(3): 23 – 25 (In Russian) K urnosova , O.P., O doyevskaya , I.M. (2017): Toxocariasis in pet dogs and cats. Med. Parasitol ., 4: 30 – 34 (In Russian) K urnosova , О.P. (2009): Parasitic diseases in domestic dogs and cats in metropolitan Moscow. Med. Parasitol ., 4: 31 – 35 (In Russian

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N. Sergeeva and O. Anikeeva

// J. Mar. Biol. Ass. of the U. K. - 2006. - 86. - P. 43-49. Golemansky V. G. Lagynis pontica n. sp., a new monothalamous rhizopod (Granuloreticulosea: Lagynidae) from the Black Sea littoral // Acta Zool. Bulgarica. - 1999. - 51. - P. 3-13. Loeblich A. R., Jr., Tappan H. Suprageneric classification of the Rhizopodea // J. Paleontology. - 1961. - 3. - P. 245-330. Loeblich A. R., Tappan H. Suprageneric classification of the Foraminiferida (Protozoa) // Micropaleontology. - 1984

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A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, S. Jurišová, P. Jarčuška and V. Krčméry

important place in the group of bacterial zoonoses (WHO, 2015). A fairly good indicator of the population load with endoparasitoses is the data on the contamination of urban waste water in the region observed. Examination of urban waste water and sludge from five monitored wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the eastern Slovakia, revealed the total positivity of samples P = 35.87 %. In 11.09 % of the samples the oo(cysts) protozoa, and helminth eggs in 20.87 % were recorded. In the raw municipal wastewater only germs of Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., eggs of

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A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, P. Jarčuška, L. Čisláková, I. Papajová and V. Krčméry

References BARTLETT, M.S., HARPER, K., SMITH, N., VERBANAC, P., SMIT, J.W. (1978): Comparative evaluation of a modifi ed Zinc Sulfate fl otation technique. J. Clin. Microbiol., 7(6): 524 - 528 BEN AYED, L., SCHIJVEN, J., ALOUINI, Z., JEMLI, M., SABBAHI, S. (2009): Presence of parasitic protozoa and helminth in sewage and effi - ciency of sewage treatment in Tunisia. Parasitol. Res.,105(2): 393 - 406. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009- 1396-y CHEREPANOV, A.A. (1982): Methods of laboratory centrals of cleaning plants on

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R. O. Slobodian, Yu. V. Kychyliuk and N. M. Soroka

of calves (spreading, diagnostics and treatment) . PhD thesis (Veterinary Sciences, 16.00.11. Parasitology). Kyiv, 1–24 [In Ukrainian]. Slobodian, R. O, Soroka, N. M. 2015. Eimeriosis of young cattle. Animal husbandry of Ukraine. Kyiv, 8, 36–40 [In Ukrainian]. Soulsby, E. J. L. 1978. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 6-th Edition of Monning’s Veterinary Helminthology & Entomology. Ed. by Soulsby, E. J. L., PhD. MRCVS, DVSM. Beccles & Colchester, London, 1–822. Swanbaev, S. K. 1977. Coccidioses of farm animals in

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Amina Boussaada, Rabah Arhab, Serena Calabrò, Raffaella Grazioli, Maria Ferrara, Nadia Musco, Madjid Thlidjane and Monica Isabella Cutrignelli

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of three Eucalyptus globulus extracts rich in phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, on rumen fermentation, methane (CH4) production, organic matter degradability and protozoa population using an in vitro gas production technique. Four concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg) of three Eucalyptus extracts (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were added to a diet of ruminants (forage: concentrate ratio 60:40) and incubated at 39°C under anaerobiosis with buffered rumen fluid. After 24 h, the fermentation fluid was analysed for ammonia-N and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Organic matter degradability (OMD) and protozoa were also determined; in vitro gas production was also recorded and CH4 concentration was measured. Compared to the control, CH4 production was significantly lower for ethyl acetate extract (P<0.05), but higher for n-butanol and aqueous extracts. Production of ammonia- N was lower in all Eucalyptus extracts (P<0.05). Propionate production (P<0.05) increased for ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts, whereas no effect was registered for VFA, for all Eucalyptus extracts. Ethyl acetate extract decreased in vitro OMD (P<0.05), whereas n-butanol and aqueous extracts were comparable to the control. Protozoa population decreased (P<0.05) for all extracts in comparison with the control. Eucalyptus ethyl acetate extract might be promising to be used as a potent anti-methanogenic additive. Moreover, the assessment of the right dosage seems to be important to decrease methane production, without reducing feed nutritional value.