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Krairerk Sintavanuruk, Sukanya Pongruekdee, Russana Thaharavanich, Surajak Laosuwan and Somrat Charuluxananan

insertion. A comparison with tracheal intubation. Anaesthesia. 1989; 44:551-4. 5. Brimacombe J.The advantage of the LMA over the tracheal tube or facemask: a meta-analysis. Can J Anesth. 1995; 42:1017-23. 6. Brain AIJ. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Instruction Manual. Henley:Intavent Research, 1995. 7. Coates DP, Monk CR, Prys Roberts C, Turtle M. Hemodynamic effects of infusions of the emulsion formulation of propofol during nitrous oxide anesthesia in humans. Anesth Analg. 1987; 66: 64-70. 8. Schwilden H

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Lipták Tomáš, Capík Igor, Ledecký Valent, Nagy Oskar, Kuricová Mária, Tóthová Csilla, Maďari Aladár, Farbáková Jana, Petrovič Vladimír and Horňák Slavomír

(1), 149-155. 4. Smith I, White PF, Nathanson M, Gouldson R: Propofol. An update on its clinical use. Anesthesiology 1994, 81:1005-43. 5. Bajwa SJS, Bajwa SK, Kaur J: Comparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl. Saudi J Anaesth 2010, 4:72-9. 6. Le Guellec C, Lacarelle B, Villard PH, Point H, Catalin J, Durand A: Glucuronidation of propofol in microsomal fractions from various tissues and species including humans: effect of different drugs. Anesth Analg

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Tomsič Katerina, Nemec Svete Alenka, Nemec Ana, Domanjko Petrič Aleksandra, Vovk Tomaž and Seliškar Alenka

REFERENCES 1. Tsuchiya M, Sato EF, Inoue M, Asada A: Open abdominal surgery increases intraoperative oxidative stress: can it be prevented? Anesth Analg 2008, 107:1946–1952. 2. Lee JY: Oxidative stress due to anesthesia and surgical trauma and comparison of the effects of propofol and thiopental in dogs. J Vet Med Sci 2012, 74:663–665. 3. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MTD, Mazur M, Telser J: Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007, 39:44–84. 4. Siti HN

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I. Capík and O. Nagy

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare in clinical patients the analgesic effect of the centrally acting analgesics tramadol and buprenorphine in continuous intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol. Twenty dogs undergoing prophylactic dental treatment, aged 2−7 years, weighing 6−27 kg, were included in ASA I. and II. groups. Two groups of dogs received intravenous (IV) administration of tramadol hydrochloride (2 mg.kg−1) or buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.2 mg.kg−1) 30 minutes prior to sedation, provided by midazolam hydrochloride (0.3 mg.kg−1) and xylazine hydrochloride (0.5 mg.kg-1) IV. General anaesthesia was induced by propofol (2 mg.kg−1) and maintained by a 120 minutes propofol infusion (0.2 mg.kg−1min−1). Oscilometric arterial blood pressure (ABP) measured in mm Hg, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), SAT, body temperature (BT) and pain reaction elicited by haemostat forceps pressure at the digit were recorded in ten minute intervals. The tramadol group of dogs showed significantly better parameters of blood pressure (P < 0.001), lower tendency to bradycardia (P < 0.05), and better respiratory rate (P < 0.001) without negative influence to oxygen saturation. Statistically better analgesia was achieved in the tramadol group (P < 0.001). Tramadol, in comparison with buprenorphine provided significantly better results with respect to the degree of analgesia, as well as the tendency of complications arising during anaesthesia.

Open access

D. Costea, R. Popescu, V. Gherghina, Gh. Nicolae, Iulia Cîndea and Alina Balcan

Abstract

It is widely known the need for a high quality sedation associated with local regional anesthesia in elderly patients’ surgery. The aim of this study was to compare two sedation regimes: propofol and midazolam, associated to spinal anesthesia with isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine in lower abdominal surgery in elderly patients. After obtaining the informed consent, 60 patients aged between 65 and 82 years old (ASA I-III), scheduled for unilateral hernioplasty , under spinal anesthesia with isobaric bupivacaine 1,5 ml (0.5%), were randomized into two groups of 30 patients each: P group - patients received propofol 3mg/kg/body/hour in the first 10 minutes and then continuous infusion by injection of 1,8 mg/kg/body/hour, and group M-patients who have received midazolam 0,2mg/kg/body/hour in the first 10 minutes and then continuous infusion by injection of 0,15 mg/kg/body/hour. In order to achieve a similar level of sedation we used 0,1% midazolam infusion and 1% propofol. Intraoperative, the following have been monitored: heart rate and breath, mean arterial pressure, hemoglobin oxygen saturation. We have also recorded the sedation score (modified Wilson sedation scale), awakening times, patient satisfaction at 24 hours (satisfaction score according to Iowa University). The average score of sedation for group P was of 3,24 ± 0,23, compared to 2,64 ±0,42 in group M (p = 0.001). Both drugs reduce blood pressure, but not more than 20% of the initial value. There are no significant differences in the satisfaction score of the patient (p = 0,18). There was just one case of respiratory depression in group M with the decrease of SpO2 at 86%.Sedation with propofol associated with local regional anesthesia techniques in elderly patients seems to provide better conditions in terms of sedation score and lack of

respiratory depression compared with the administration of midazolam. Recovery was significantly faster after sedation with propofol. The satisfaction score of the patient was similar in the two groups

Open access

P. Gomułka, E. Fornal, B. Berecka, A. Szmagara and E. Ziomek

poissons anesthésiés a la tricaine. C r séances Soc biol ses fil 110: 151-153. Bell GR ( 1967 ) A guide to the properties, characteristics and uses of some general anesthetics for fish. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. Brown LA ( 1988 ) Anesthesia in fish. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 18(2): 317-330. Flecknell PA ( 2009 ) Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia. 3 rd ed., Elsevier Ltd, Oxford. Fleming GJ, Heard DJ, Francis Floyd R, Riggs A ( 2003 ) Evaluation of propofol and medetomidine-ketamine for short-term immobilization of Gulf of

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Gordana Taleska, Zorka Nikolova, Vesna Durnev, Maja Mojsova-Mijovska, Elvis Aleksovski, Ljupco Donev, Trajanka Trajkovska, Marija Soljakova, Gordana Petrushevska, Aleksandra Gavrilovska, Vanja Dgambazovska-Trajkovska, Aleksandar Dimov, Vesna Cvetanovska, Vladimir Cadikovski and Risto Simeonov

;121:206-215. 8. Bennett SN, McNeil MM, Bland LA, Arduino MJ, Villarino ME, Perrotta DM, Burwen DR, Welbel SF, Pegues DA, Stroud L, et al. Postoperative infections traced to contamination of an intravenous anesthetic, propofol. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(3):147-54. 9. Package insert. Diprivan (propofol). Wilmslow, UK: Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, 1996. 10. Center for Disease Control. Postsurgical infections associated with extrinsically contaminated intravenous anesthetic agent - California, Illinois, Maine, and Michigan. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.1990

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Bogdan Yanev Aminkov, Nikolay Hristov Mehandzhiyski, Nadya Zlatozarova Zlateva-Panayotova, Konstantin Bogdanov Aminkov and Georgi Marinov Marinov

-ketamine combinations, and atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: A review. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 1990; 21: 259-282. 14. Harper M.H., Hiskey R.F., Cromwel T.H., Linwood H. The magnitude of respiratory depression produced by fentanyl plus droperidol in man. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1976; 199: 464- 468. 15. Muir W.W., Gadawski J.E. Respiratory depression and apnea induced by propofol in dogs. AJVR 1998, 59(2):157-161. 16. Dıaz M, Becker D. Thermoregulation: Physiological and Clinical Considerations during Sedation and General Anesthesia. Anesth

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P. Gomułka, E. Czerniak, J. Dągowski, M. Łuczyński, A. Szczerbowski and M. Szkudlarek

( 1967 ) A guide to the properties, characteristics, and uses of some general anesthetics for fish. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. Branca D, Vincenti E, Scutari G ( 1995 ) Influence of the anesthetic 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol) on isolated rat heart mitochondria. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 110: 41-45. Brenier NJ, Randall DJ ( 1998 ) Carbon dioxide anaesthesia in rainbow trout: effects of hypercapnic level and stress on induction and recovery from anaesthetic treatment. J Fish Biol 52: 621-637. Fleming GJ

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Thanist Pravitharangul, Wirakorn Koopinpaitoon, Rungruedee Kraisen and Rojnarin Komonhirun

effects, which may be able to counteract vasodilation. Its duration of action also provides the possibility for it to be administered as a bolus dose. An admixture of ephedrine and propofol had demonstrated more hemodynamic stability when administered for induction [ 6 , 7 ]. Therefore, the mixture may be able to both preserve core temperature and reduce hypotension caused by propofol. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of single bolus dose of ephedrine given during induction of general anesthesia on preserving esophageal temperature. Materials and