-87. ASAE Standards 1997. S368.2. Compression Test of Food Materials of Convex Shape (44th ed.). American Society for Agricultural Engineering, St. Joseph, Michigan. Fraser B.M., Verma S.S., Muir W.E. 1978. Some physical properties of faba beans. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research. 22: 53-57. Ghabel R., Rajabipour A., Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti M., Oveisi M. 2010. Modeling the mass of Iranian export onion ( Allium cepa L.) varieties using some physical characteristics. Journal of Research Agriculture Engineering. 56
Jana Apse and Aldis Karklins
Highbush blueberries are a relatively new crop in Latvia raising interest in farmers who wish to diversify their commercial horticultural activities. It is considered that soil properties are one of the possible shortcomings limiting establishment of high-productive plantations in areas where soil reaction is close to neutral. The research objective was to test the main soil characteristics in a commercial highbush blueberry plantation where initial soil properties were changed as a result of soil modification (deep tillage, peat additions) before planting of bushes and afterwards maintained (mulching with acid peat and sawdust) periodically. The research was carried out in 2011 - in a farm where the blueberry plantation had been established seven years ago. The experimental plots were arranged on a complex slope, by choosing different parts of terrain. Soil - Haplic Cambisol, sandy loam, formed on a low calcareous moraine. Original topsoil’s reaction was pH KCl 5.37. Five experimental plots, each consisting of seven bushes, were set up. Research showed that modification of topsoil significantly changed the physical and agrochemical properties of soil. Soil bulk density reduced, porosity and soil aeration increased. Sphagnum peat (pH KCl 3.0) as a soil modifier allowed efficiently reducing the soil reaction at the soil root zone and provided an optimal environment for blueberries. Soil properties were not the determinant factor that limited establishment of a productive blueberry plantation. Soil properties adjusted accordingly to the requirements of highbush blueberry gave the possibility of establishing plantations also in typical mineral soils that develop on a low calcareous moraine.
A. Brunerová, M. Brožek, V. Šleger and A. Nováková
Agricultural Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic, 156–162. EN 14918 (2010): Solid biofuels – Determination of calorific value. EN 15234-1 (2011): Solid biofuels – Fuel quality assurance. Part 1: General requirements. EN 643 (2014): Paper and board – European list of standard grades of paper and board for recycling. EN 18134-2 (2015): Solid biofuels – Determination of moisture content. Oven dry method. Part 2: Total moisture – simplified method. EN ISO 13061-2 (2014): Physical and mechanical properties of wood – Test methods for small clear wood
Karina Ruse, Tatjana Rakcejeva, Lija Dukalska and Fredijs Dimins
The main purpose of the present research was to investigate the changes in physical-chemical parameters of fresh Latvian cranberries during storage. Cranberry (′Steven′, ′Bergman′, ′Pilgrim′, ′Early Black′, and ′Ben Lear′) fruit were collected at a processing plant in Kurzeme region, Latvia, in the first part of October 2010. For the experiments, also wild cranberries were collected in the bogs of the same region and at the same time. The berries were rinsed with tap water for 3±1 min, then strained for 10±1 min (mainly for visual cleanness), and afterwards stored in closed non-perforated polypropylene (PP) boxes in air ambiance and in glass jars in a cold boiled-water ambiance at 3±1 °C. Quality parameters of the berries were tested each three months using standard methods: vitamin C content - by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); organic acids - by HPLC; moisture - by oven-dry method; colour parameters - by device COLOR TEC PMC; pH - by potentiometric method; anthocyanin - by spectrophotometrical method; and phenolic compounds - by HPLC. The shelf life of cranberries packaged in closed PP boxes in air ambiance was six months, but of cranberries packaged in glass jars in water ambiance - 12 months. The research showed that differences in moisture content, pH value, colour intensity, and anthocyanin content among the cranberry cultivars under different ambient conditions during storage were not significant. During 12 months of cranberry storage in glass jars in water ambiance, the content of vitamin C decreased on average by 90%, organic acids - by 54%, and phenolic compounds - by 60%. During six-month storage in closed PP boxes in air ambiance, the content of vitamin C decreased on average by 99%, organic acids - by 30%, and phenolic compounds - by 34%.
M. Hrušková and I. Švec
Standards, Metrology and Testing, Prague. CSN EN ISO 3093 (2011): Wheat, rye and their flours, durum wheat and durum wheat semolina – Determination of the falling number according to Hagberg-Perten. Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing, Prague. CSN EN ISO 5529 (2011): Wheat – Determination of the sedimentation index – Zeleny test. Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing, Prague. CSN EN ISO 5530-1 (2011): Wheat flour: Physical characteristics of doughs. Part 1: Determination of water absorption and rheological properties using a
Theerthagiri Anand, Angannan Chandrasekaran, Sasthamoorthy Kuttalam, Govindasamy Senthilraja, Thiruvengadam Raguchander and Ramasamy Samiyappan
., Hitch C. J. 2002. Integration of strobilurins and other fungicides for the control of powdery mildew on grapes. Australian J. Grapevine Res. 8 (2): 132-139. Wilcox W. F., Riegel D. R., Wong F. P. 1999. Evaluation of fungicide programs for control of grapevine downy mildew. Fungic. Nematic. Tests 54, p. 111. Wong F. P., Wilcox W. F. 2001. Comparitive physical modes of action of azoxystrobin, mancozeb and metalaxyl against Plasmopara viticola grapevine downy mildew. J. Plant Dis. 85 (6): 649-656.
Romuald Górski, Marek Wachowiak and Michał Tomczak
The Effect of Water Magnetized with Negative Magnetic Field on Effectiveness of Selected Zoocides in the Control of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)
The results of experiments showed an effect of negative magnetic field on some chemical and physical properties of water. A slight increase in iron (Fe) content, a decrease in zinc (Zn) level and an increase in surface tension (Dc) were observed in the study. At the same time the effect of magnetically modified water on an increase in effectiveness of tested zoocides was observed in the control of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). A strong and statistically significant increase in the effectiveness of zoocide Talstar 100 EC was recorded after the application of one and three magnetizers, preparation Omite 30 WP after the application of two magnetizers, acaricide Magus 200 SC after the application of one and two magnetizers as well as a simultaneous use of one magnetizer and two semi-rings. Acaricide Ortus 05 SC showed a marked increase in the effectiveness in all treatments with the use of magnetically modified water.
Renata Różyło and Janusz Laskowski
developmental rheology of wheat-flour dough using extension tests. J. Cereal Sci., 2000, 31, 1-13. ISO 2171: 1994. Cereal and cereal products. Determination of ash content. ISO 3093: 1982. Cereals - Determination of falling number. ISO 5529: 1992. Wheat - Determination of sedimentation index - Zeleny test. ISO 5530-4: 2002. Wheat flour ( Triticum aestivum L. ). Physical characteristics of doughs. Determination of rheological properties using an alveograph. Jakubczyk T
Joanna Niewczas, Marta Mitek, Aleksandra Korzeniewska and Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt
, Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warszawa (in Polish). 7. Gajewski M., Radzanowska J., Danilcenko H., Jariene E., Cerniauskiene J., Quality of pumpkin cultivars in relation to sensory characteristics. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj, 2008, 36, 73-79. 8. Guiné R.P.F., Pinho S., Barroca M.J., Study of the convective drying of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). Food Bioprod. Process., 2011, 89, 422-428. 9. Harvey W.J., Grant D.G., Lammerink J.P., Physical and sensory changes during the development and storage of buttercup squash. New Zealand J. Crop
J. Horabik and M. Molenda
-202. doi: 10.1016/j.po-wtec.2004.07.003. Mühlhaus HB, Vardoulakis I (1987): The thickness of shear bands in granular materials. Géotechnique, 37, 271-283. Ord A, Hobbs B, Regenauer-Lieb K (2007): Shear band emergence in granular materials -a numerical study. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geome-chanics, 31, 373-393. doi: 10.1002/nag.590. Parafiniuk P, Molenda M, Horabik J (2013): Discharge of rapeseeds from a model silo: physical testing and Distinct Element Method simulation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 97, 40