References Hilton, J. (2006). "Phosphogypsum Menagement and Opportunities for Use. The International Fertilizer Society Cambridge, December, Proceedings 587. Paige-Green, P. & Gerber, S. (2000) An Evaluation of the Use of By-product Phosphogypsum as a Pavement Material for Roads, South African Transport Conference "Action In Transport for the New Millenium" 17-20 July 2000, Conference papers. Xibing, L. i in., (2008), Utilization of Phosphogypsum for Backfilling, Way to Relieve Its
Stanisław Folek, Barbara Walawska, Bożena Wilczek and Jolanta Miśkiewicz
Kinga Podbiera-Matysik, Katarzyna Gorazda and Zbigniew Wzorek
References 1. Kijkowska, R. (1988). Rare Earths in phosphogypsum from the processing of apatite, Monograph 74, Poland: Cracow University of Technology (in Polish). 2. Jarosiński, A. (2001). The rules for complex development of the secondary deposits on the example of economic use of apatite phosphogypsum, Scientific Books of Cracow University of Technology, series Engineering and Chemical Technology, No. 27, Cracow (in Polish). 3. Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 127 from December 24, 2010 about
J. Sokołowski and P. Urbańska
References  Phosphogypsum - unpublished conference materials of Z.Ch. Police received by courtesy of Z.Ch. Police (in Polish).  Inorganic waste of chemical industry - technological forsight, Project WND-POIG.01.01.01.-00-009/09, Final report, B. Cichy, January 2012 (in Polish).  J. Sokołowski, K. Łuczaj, P. Urbanska, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 56, 4, 1185-1192 (2011).  A. Bojanowicz - Bablok, Chemical Industry 92, 4, 450 (2013) (in Polish).  Pat
Sujeet Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Dutta and Bijayananda Mohanty
Construction Materials, 64-76. Ameta, N. K. - Purohit, D. G. M. - Wayal, A. S. (2007) Economics of stabilizing bentonite soil with lime-phosphogypsum. EJGE, 12(E), 1-8. Barker, J. E. - Rogers, C. D. F. - Boardman, D. I. (2006) Physiochemical changes in clay caused by ion migration from lime piles. J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 18(2), 182-189. Bell, F. G. (1988) Stabilization and treatment of clay soils with lime, Part 1-Basic principles. Ground Eng., 21(1), 10-15. Bell, F. G. (1996) Lime stabilization of clay minerals
Barbara Grzmil, Bogumił Kic, Olga Żurek and Konrad Kubiak
-31. Phosphoric acid technology at large. (1999). Phosph. Potass. 221, 55-59. Phosphoric acid technology at large -Part II. (1999). Phosph. Potass. 224, 19-25. Dorozhkin, S. V. (1997). Fundamentals of Wet-Process phosphoric Acid production. 2. Kinetics and Mechanism of CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O Surface Crystallization and Coating Formation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 36(2), 467-473. DOI: 10.1021/ie960219f. Xibing Li, Zilong Zhou, Guoyan Zhao, & Zhixiang Liu. (2008). Utilization of phosphogypsum for backfilling
Małgorzata Szynkowska, Ewa Leśniewska, Aleksandra Pawlaczyk, Jacek Rogowski and Tadeusz Paryjczak
Application of the TOF-SIMS and SEM-EDS methods to assess the influence of dusting from a phosphate waste deposal place based on hair analysis
In this work, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were used to study the particles present on the hair surface of the inhabitants of Wislinka (people environmentally exposed due to the closeness of a dump) in order to obtain the information about the possible influence of dusting from a phosphate waste deposal place. Additionally, the morphology and the composition of fresh phosphogypsum were analyzed. Waste phosphogypsum is formed in the process of a wet phosphoric acid production and there is still a problem with its storage. A thorough understanding of the composition and chemistry of phosphogypsum seems to be necessary to evaluate its environmental impact comprehensively. The results obtained from these two techniques turned out to be complementary and revealed the information expected.
Tomislav Bituh, Branko Petrinec, Božena Skoko, Zlatko Vučić and Gordana Marović
References 1. Abril JM, Garcia-Tenorio R, Manjon G. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: 226Ra, 238U, 210Po concentrations and 222Rn exhalation rate. J Hazard Mater 2009;164:790-7. doi: 10.1016/j. jhazmat.2008.08.078 2. Al Attar L, Al-Oudat M, Kanakri S, Budeir Y, Khalily H. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum. J Eviron Manage 2011;92:2151-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.041 3. Rutherford PM, Dudas MJ, Samek RA. Environmental impact of phosphogypsum. Sci Total Environ
Przemysław Malinowski, Andrzej Biskupski and Józef Głowiński
Preparation methods of calcium sulphate and urea adduct
The paper presents the results of laboratory studies on the preparation of calcium sulphate and urea adduct by: grinding, compacting and mixing in the presence of physical water. A method for the measurement of urea conversion into the adduct form, which is based on the difference in solubility of free urea and the adduct bound urea CaSO4·4CO(NH2)2 in n-butanol, was developed. Mixing the reagents in the presence of physical water produced the best results. High urea conversion into the adduct form, over 85%, in the prepared samples indicates that this method can be successfully used to get CaSO4·4CO(NH2)2 adduct.
Stefan Góralczyk and Elżbieta Uzunow
Rare earth metals including yttrium and europium are one of several critical raw materials, the use of which ensures the development of the so-called high technology. The possibility of their recovery in Europe is limited practically only to secondary materials such as phosphogypsum and electronic waste.
The article presents the results of our research concerning the development of recovery technology of yttrium and europium from luminophore CRT used lamps. It describes the principle of separation of elements and the test results of cleaning the concentrate. It was shown that the costs of preparing the concentrate according to the proposed technology are lower than the phosphogypsum processing technology and the composition of the resulting product does not contain hazardous substances.
sulphur deposits — a review. Kwart. Geol. 38, 3, 473-496. KOWALSKI W., BŁASZCZYK M., MYCIELSKI R., PRZYTOCKA-JUSIAK M., RZECZYCKA M. 1997: Microbiological recovery of lanthanides from phosphogypsum waste. ICAM 96 — Proceedings of the International Congress on Applied Mineralogy in the Mineral Industry , Warsaw, 221-228. CHLEBOWSKI R., KOWALSKI W., 1999: Petrographic and mineralogical studies of contemporary sediments developed on the wreck of a ship on the Baltic Sea bottom. Arch. Miner. 52, 2, 141