, phosphonomycin amino butyl alcohol three salt granules, and fosfomycin two sodium salt for injection.
Although the clinical application of phosphomycin has increased in recent years, there are few clinical reports in China. According to the related literatures at home and abroad, this review briefly introduces fosfomycin in the following three aspects: progress in synthetic methods, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, and antibacterial activities, to provide references for clinical rational use.
The synthesis of fosfomycin
Fosfomycin was first
Adrian Głogowski, Zbigniew Marczyński, Michał Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Jerzy Jambor, Marta Kinga Stefan and Marian Mikołaj Zgoda
Introduction: Dietary supplements are a good way to supplement the deficiency of certain micronutrients and organic components (therapeutic agents) in human body. They are most often available in concentrated form as tablets, capsules, powder or liquid.
Objective: To investigate morphological parameters and the pharmaceutical availability of coated tablets – dietary supplements – that contain selected pharmacopeial titrated dry plant extracts.
Methods: Testing of the effective time of the tablet surface erosion was performed in model acceptor fluids using pharmacopeial methods in static (Erweka apparatus) and dynamic (unlimited diffusion method) conditions. Furthermore, morphological parameters of tablets (the original shape of an ellipse) as well as their hardness were determined.
Results: The effective erosion time was determined by conductometric method using carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (NaCMC) contained in the tablet. The content of gum arabic and NaCMC in the tablet testifies that the granulate was produced using the “wet granulation” technique which resulted in high hardness of original, esthetic, elliptical tablets and in prolonged disintegration time (erosion).
Conclusions: The used excipients: gum arabic and NaCMC for the production of the tested tablets containing selected dry plant extracts result in their high hardness. The tested dietary supplements are characterized by esthetic design, original shape, and prolonged disintegration time which affects the pharmaceutical availability.
1. Nauck MA, Homberger E, Siegel EG et al. Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 63: 492-498, 1986.
2. Nauck MA, Stöckmann F, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (noninsulin- dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 29: 46-52, 1986.
3. Vildagliptin - summary of product characteristics, 2012.
4. He Y-L. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of
H. Bártíková, L. Skálová, J. Lamka, B. Szotáková and M. Várady
pharmacokinetics. Acta Tropica, 86: 141–159 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-706X(03)00031-7
 Dobson, R. J., Griffiths, D. A., Donald, A. D., Waller, P. J. (1987): A genetic model describing the evolution of levamisole resistance in Trichostrongylus colubriformis, a nematode parasite of sheep. IMA J. Appl. Math., 4: 279–293 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/imammb/4.4.279
 Hubert, J., Kerboeuf, D. (1992): A microlarval development assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Vet. Rec., 130: 442–446 http
Anna Bogacz, Donata Deka-Pawlik, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Monika Karasiewicz, Radosław Kujawski, Aleksandra Kowalska, Aleksandra Chałas, Bogusław Czerny, Edmund Grześkowiak and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 294:88-95.
24. Bilia AR, Gallori S, Vincieri FF. St. John’s wort and depression: efficacy, safety and tolerability - an update. Life Sci 2002; 70:3077-96.
25. Calapai G, Crupi A, Firenzuoli F et al. Serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine involvement in the antidepressant action of Hypericum perforatum. Pharmacopsych 2001; 34:45-9.
26. Wang Z, Hamman MA, Huang SM, Lesko LJ, Hall SD. Effect of St John‘s wort on the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71
Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Marcin Ożarowski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Radosław Kujawski, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Beata Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Teresa Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Bogusław Czerny, Edmund Grześkowiak and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
. Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (-)- epigallocatechin-3 gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11:1025-1032.
19. Bu-Abbas A, Clifford MN, Walker R, Ioannides C. Selective induction of rat hepatic CYP1 proteins and of peroxisomal proliferation by green tea. Carcinogenesis 1994; 15:2575-2579.
20. Maliakal PP, Coville PF, Wanwimolruk S. Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001
Radosław Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Bogusław Czerny and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
prostate cancer. J Urol 2008; 179:1235-42.
33. Aggarwal S, Thareja S, Verma A, Bhardwaj TR, Kumar M. An overview on 5-α-reductase inhibitors. Steroids 2010; 75:109-153.
34. Azzouni F. Mohler J. Role of 5α-reductase inhibitors in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Urology 2012; 79(6):1197-205.
35. Gisleskog PO, Hermann D, Hammarlund-Udenaes M, Karlsson MO. The pharmacokinetic modelling of GI198745 (dutasteride), a compound with parallel linear and nonlinear elimination. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47
Zhi-liang Hu, Hong-xia Wei, Wen-hu Yao and Yong-feng Yang
. Efficacy of voriconazole in a murine model of cryptococcal central nervous system infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007;60:162-165.
4 Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Boyken L, Rice C, Tendolkar S, Hollis RJ, et al. Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004). J Clin Microbiol 2005;43: 2163-2167.
5 Liu P, Foster G, LaBadie RR, Gutierrez MJ, Sharma A. Pharmacokinetic interaction between voriconazole and efavirenz at steady state in healthy male subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2008;48:73-84.
Radosław Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Monika Karasiewicz, Anna Bogacz, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Bogusław Czerny and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
Mol Biol 1997; 61:55-64.
41. Kang DI, Chung JL. Current status of 5α-reductase inhibitors in prostate disease management. Korean J Urol 2013; 54(4):213-9.
42. Gisleskog PO, Hermann D, Hammarlund-Udenaes M, Karlsson MO. The pharmacokinetic modelling of GI198745 (dutasteride), a compound with parallel linear and nonlinear elimination. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47:53-8.
43. Stuart JD, Lee FW, Simpson Noel D, Kadwell SH, Overton LK, Hoffman CR, Kost TA, Tippin TK, Yeager RL, Batchelor KW, Bramson HN. Pharmacokinetic
receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 19: 524-536, 2017.
7. Malone J, Trautmann M, Wilhelm K, Taylor K, Kendall DM. Exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 18:359-367, 2009.
8. Knop FK, Brønden A, Vilsbøll T. Exenatide: pharmacokinetics, clinical use, and future directions. Expert Opin Pharmacother 18: 555-571, 2017.
9. Abd El Aziz MS, Kahle M, Meier JJ, Nauck MA. A meta-analysis comparing clinical effects of short- or