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P. Socha, M. Rudowska and T. Janowski

References Beccaglia M, Faustini M, Luvoni GC ( 2008 ) Ultrasonographic study of deep portion of diencephalon - telencephalic vesicle for the determination of gestational age of the canine foetus. Reprod Dom Anim 43: 367-370. Beccaglia M, Luvoni GC ( 2006 ) Comparison of the accuracy of two ultrasonographic measurements in predicting the parturition date in the bitch. J Small Anim Pract 47: 670-673. Chapwanya A, Clegg T, Stanley P, Vaughan L ( 2008 ) Comparison of the Immulite and RIA assay methods for

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M. Witkowski and K. Pawłowski

References Alm CC, Sullivan JJ, First NL (1974) Induction of premature parturition by parenteral administration of dexamethoasone in the mare. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165: 721-722. Alm CC, Sullivan JJ, First NL (1975) The effect of corticosteroid (dexamethasone), progesterone, oestrogen and prostaglandine F2α on gestation length in normal and ovariectomized mares. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 23: 637-640. Bennett DG (1988) Artificially controlled versus spontaneous parturition in the mare. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 10: 506

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Andrzej Max and Piotr Jurka

neonates’ survival rate. Proc 6th Intern Symp on Canine and Feline Reprod, Vienna, Austria 2008, pp. 23-24. 14. Smith F.O.: Guide to emergency interception during parturition in the dog and cat. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2012, 42 , 489-499. 15. Stengel B.: Untersuchungen über Auftreten und Verlauf von Geburtsstörungen bei der Hündin. Eine Retrospektive Studie über 648 Fälle. Vet Med Diss, Gynäkologische und Ambulatorische Tierklinik, München 1997. 16. Traas A.M.: Surgical management of canine and feline dystocia

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Anna Sawa, Małgorzata Jankowska, Wojciech Neja and Sylwia Krężel-Czopek

calving in dairy cows under natural conditions and their impact on parturition, postpartum period and fertility (in Polish). Prz. Hod., 9: 1-6. Kuźma R., Kuźma K., Malinowski E. (1998). Occurrence and effect of multiple births on the health and fertility of cows (in Polish). 45th Anniversary Symposium of the Department of Animal Science, AR Kraków, pp. 89-90. Lopez - Gatius F., Hunter R.H. (2005). Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos: its occurrence and clinical relevance in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 63: 118

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L. Krakowski, P. Bartoszek, I. Krakowska, P. Olcha, T. Piech, A. Stachurska and P. Brodzki

in normal postpartum mares. Equine Vet J 29: 234-235. Tomenendalova J, Vodicka R, Uhrikova I, Doubek J ( 2014 ) Determination of hematological and biochemical parameters of Przewalski horses ( Equus przewalski ) kept by the Prague Zoo. Vet Med-Czech 59: 11-21 Vivrette S ( 1994 ) The endocrinology of parturition in the mare. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 10: 1-17. Wong CW, Smith SE, Thong YH, Opdebeeck JP, Thornton JR ( 1992 ) Effects of exercise stress on various immune functions in horses. Am J Vet Res 53: 1414-1417.

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K. Satué, M. Felipe, J. Mota and A. Muñoz

and fertility of posavina mares. Stocarstvo 56: 243-256. Cilek S ( 2009 ) The survey of reproductive success in Arabian horse breeding from 1976-2007 at Anadolu State farm in Turkey. J Anim Vet Adv 8: 389-396. Davies-Morel MC, Newcombe JR, Holland SJ ( 2002 ) Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare. Anim Reprod Sci 74: 175-185. Davies-Morel MC ( 2008 ) The endocrine control of parturition. In: Davies-Morel MC (ed) Equine reproductive physiology, breeding and stud

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P. Gol'din

References Acevedo J., Aguayo-Lobo A., Torres D. Fetus presentation and time taken for parturition in Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, at Cape Shirreff, Antarctica // Polar Biology. - 2008. - 31 . - P. 1137-1141. Baker J. R., Martin A. R. Causes of mortality and parasites and incidental lesions in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from British waters // The Veterinary Record. - 1992. - 130 , N 25. - P. 554-558. Blanchet M.-A., Wahlberg M., Ishigami T. First

Open access

Artur Wdowiak, Grzegorz Bakalczuk, Elwira Dadej, Anita Wdowiak, Michał Filip, Edyta Wdowiak, Magdalena Lewicka and Magdalena Sulima

Abstract

Pregnancy is a woman’s physiological state, covering the period from conception to birth. It is an important time in the life of every woman and the child’s father. Often, the parents-to-be find the new situation difficult. Childbirth classes may prove helpful during pregnancy and childbirth for mothers and fathers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of antenatal classes on parturition, according to the assessment of patients. The study was conducted at the Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski Provincial Specialist University Hospital in Lublin at the maternity ward on a group of 155 patients by means of diagnostic survey. The survey, by which the research material was collected, has been developed with the author’s own method. It has been shown that education and age of the participants influence the decision to use the services of childbirth education classes. Furthermore, the knowledge of breathing techniques, the use of birthing facilities, development of a plan for parturition and knowledge of methods of pain relief of childbirth have no impact on its duration. It was also shown that it is important to use relevant childbirth positions.

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Leszek Krakowski, Przemysław Bartoszek, Izabela Krakowska, Anna Stachurska, Tomasz Piech, Piotr Brodzki and Zygmunt Wrona

Abstract

Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological state in which the immune system undergoes certain changes. On the one hand, by depleting cell defence mechanisms, it favours development and maintenance of the pregnancy. At the same time cells of the immune system ensure resistance to many risk factors, including infectious agents.

Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 Polish Konik breed mares which were divided into two equal groups. The first group (group I) included mares living in the reserve. The second group (group II) comprised mares maintained under conventional conditions in the stables. The blood samples were collected for the first time in the perinatal period, i.e. 2 weeks before parturition (trial 0), then within the first 24 h after delivery, and then on 7th and 21st day after foaling. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte expressing TCD4+, TCD8+, CD2+, and MHC class II antigens was performed.

Results: Before the delivery, in group I there was a significantly higher CD4:CD8 ratio compared to group II (P ≤0.05). Similarly, significantly increased CD4:CD8 ratio in group I was noted within 24 h after parturition (P ≤0.001) and it was also observed on 7th day (P ≤0.03) and 21st day after foaling (P ≤0.02). In the first 24 h after parturition, a significant decline of lymphocytes CD8+ (P ≤0.02) was noted. No significant differences in terms of lymphocytes CD2+ and CD3+ were observed. Expression of MHC-II molecules before and after the parturition was higher in group I compared to group II; however, the difference between the groups was not significant.

Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that mares living in the reserve display higher activity of cell defence mechanisms.

Open access

Yan Zhang, Changbin Quan, Weimin Li, Liying Chen, Xiaoyan Song, Jianbin Xu and Guangqing Zhu

, the anterior pituitary was small, thin, or absent in 207, of which 80.7% resulted from pituitary stalk interruption and 19.3% were caused by pituitary stalk thinning. Among 259 patients with posterior pituitary ectopia or absence, 93.4% were because of pituitary stalk interruption and 6.6% were because of pituitary stalk thinning. Etiological analysis Among 311 patients, 155 (49.8%) had an explicit history of abnormal parturition, 67 (31.5%) had a history of cerebral anoxia, 48 patients’ (22.5%) mothers had experienced pregnancy abnormalities while the patient