References Beccaglia M, Faustini M, Luvoni GC ( 2008 ) Ultrasonographic study of deep portion of diencephalon - telencephalic vesicle for the determination of gestational age of the canine foetus. Reprod Dom Anim 43: 367-370. Beccaglia M, Luvoni GC ( 2006 ) Comparison of the accuracy of two ultrasonographic measurements in predicting the parturition date in the bitch. J Small Anim Pract 47: 670-673. Chapwanya A, Clegg T, Stanley P, Vaughan L ( 2008 ) Comparison of the Immulite and RIA assay methods for
P. Socha, M. Rudowska and T. Janowski
M. Witkowski and K. Pawłowski
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Andrzej Max and Piotr Jurka
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Anna Sawa, Małgorzata Jankowska, Wojciech Neja and Sylwia Krężel-Czopek
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L. Krakowski, P. Bartoszek, I. Krakowska, P. Olcha, T. Piech, A. Stachurska and P. Brodzki
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Artur Wdowiak, Grzegorz Bakalczuk, Elwira Dadej, Anita Wdowiak, Michał Filip, Edyta Wdowiak, Magdalena Lewicka and Magdalena Sulima
Pregnancy is a woman’s physiological state, covering the period from conception to birth. It is an important time in the life of every woman and the child’s father. Often, the parents-to-be find the new situation difficult. Childbirth classes may prove helpful during pregnancy and childbirth for mothers and fathers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of antenatal classes on parturition, according to the assessment of patients. The study was conducted at the Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski Provincial Specialist University Hospital in Lublin at the maternity ward on a group of 155 patients by means of diagnostic survey. The survey, by which the research material was collected, has been developed with the author’s own method. It has been shown that education and age of the participants influence the decision to use the services of childbirth education classes. Furthermore, the knowledge of breathing techniques, the use of birthing facilities, development of a plan for parturition and knowledge of methods of pain relief of childbirth have no impact on its duration. It was also shown that it is important to use relevant childbirth positions.
Leszek Krakowski, Przemysław Bartoszek, Izabela Krakowska, Anna Stachurska, Tomasz Piech, Piotr Brodzki and Zygmunt Wrona
Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological state in which the immune system undergoes certain changes. On the one hand, by depleting cell defence mechanisms, it favours development and maintenance of the pregnancy. At the same time cells of the immune system ensure resistance to many risk factors, including infectious agents.
Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 Polish Konik breed mares which were divided into two equal groups. The first group (group I) included mares living in the reserve. The second group (group II) comprised mares maintained under conventional conditions in the stables. The blood samples were collected for the first time in the perinatal period, i.e. 2 weeks before parturition (trial 0), then within the first 24 h after delivery, and then on 7th and 21st day after foaling. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte expressing TCD4+, TCD8+, CD2+, and MHC class II antigens was performed.
Results: Before the delivery, in group I there was a significantly higher CD4:CD8 ratio compared to group II (P ≤0.05). Similarly, significantly increased CD4:CD8 ratio in group I was noted within 24 h after parturition (P ≤0.001) and it was also observed on 7th day (P ≤0.03) and 21st day after foaling (P ≤0.02). In the first 24 h after parturition, a significant decline of lymphocytes CD8+ (P ≤0.02) was noted. No significant differences in terms of lymphocytes CD2+ and CD3+ were observed. Expression of MHC-II molecules before and after the parturition was higher in group I compared to group II; however, the difference between the groups was not significant.
Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that mares living in the reserve display higher activity of cell defence mechanisms.
Yan Zhang, Changbin Quan, Weimin Li, Liying Chen, Xiaoyan Song, Jianbin Xu and Guangqing Zhu
, the anterior pituitary was small, thin, or absent in 207, of which 80.7% resulted from pituitary stalk interruption and 19.3% were caused by pituitary stalk thinning. Among 259 patients with posterior pituitary ectopia or absence, 93.4% were because of pituitary stalk interruption and 6.6% were because of pituitary stalk thinning. Etiological analysis Among 311 patients, 155 (49.8%) had an explicit history of abnormal parturition, 67 (31.5%) had a history of cerebral anoxia, 48 patients’ (22.5%) mothers had experienced pregnancy abnormalities while the patient