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Slavica Vučinić, Milica Zlatković, Biljana Antonijević, Marijana Ćurčić and Bogdan Bošković

Despite improvements to intensive care management and specific pharmacological treatments (atropine, oxime, diazepam), the mortality associated with organophosphate (OP) poisoning has not substantially decreased. The objective of this examination was to describe the role of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in acute OP poisoning. After a deliberate ingestion of malathion, a 55-year-old male suffering from miosis, somnolence, bradycardia, muscular fasciculations, rales on auscultation, respiratory insufficiency, as well as from an inhibition of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), was admitted to hospital. Malathion was confirmed in a concentration of 18.01 mg L-1. Apart from supportive measures (including mechanical ventilation for four days), antidotal treatment with atropine, oxime - pralidoxime methylsulphate (ContrathionR), and diazepam was administered, along with FFP. The potentially beneficial effects of FFP therapy included a prompt increase of BuChE activity (from 926 IU L-1 to 3277 IU L-1; reference range from 7000 IU L-1 to 19000 IU L-1) and a reduction in the malathion concentration, followed by clinical recovery. Due to BuChE replacement, albumin content, and volume restitution, FFP treatment may be used as an alternative approach in patients with acute OP poisoning, especially when oximes are not available.

Open access

Maja Katalinić, Nikolina Maček Hrvat, Jana Žďárová Karasová, Jan Misik and Zrinka Kovarik

Even if organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents were banned entirely, their presence would remain a problem as weapons of terror (like in Syria). Oxime antidotes currently used in medical practice still fall short of their therapeutic purpose, as they fail to fully restore the activity of cholinesterases, the main target for OPs. As orphan drugs, these antidotes are tested too seldom for anybody’s benefit. Over the last few decades, search for improved reactivators has reached new levels, but the translation of data obtained in vitro to in vivo application is still a problem that hinders efficient therapy. In this study, we tested the strengths and weaknesses of extrapolating pyridinium oxime antidotes reactivation efficiency from in vitro to in vivo application. Our results show that this extrapolation is possible with well-determined kinetic constants, but that it also largely depends on oxime circulation time and its tissue-specific distribution. This suggests that pharmacokinetic studies should be planned at the early stages of antidote development. Special attention should also be given to improving oxime distribution throughout the organism to overcome this major constraint in improving overall OP therapy.

Open access

Suzana Žunec, Božica Radić, Kamil Kuča, Kamil Musilek and Ana Lucić Vrdoljak


The inability of standard therapy to provide adequate protection against poisoning by organophosphorus compounds (pesticides and nerve agents) motivated us to search for new, more effective oximes. We investigated the pharmacotoxicological properties of six experimental K-oximes (K027, K033, K048, K074, K075, and K203) in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of K-oximes (at doses of 5 or 25 % of their LD50) combined with atropine was assessed in paraoxon-poisoned mice and compared with conventionally used oximes HI-6 and TMB-4. The bisoxime K074 was the most toxic (LD50=21.4 mg kg-1) to mice, while monoxime K027 was the least toxic (LD50=672.8 mg kg-1). With the exception of K033, all of the tested K-oximes showed better therapeutic efficiency than HI-6 and TMB-4. K027 and K048 stood out by demonstrating low acute toxicities and ensuring protective indices ranging from 60.0 to 100.0 LD50 of paraoxon. Taking into account that these two oximes showed a similar therapeutic efficacy regardless of the applied doses, our results suggest that K027 and K048 could be antidotes for paraoxon intoxication.