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Oliver Pabst

consequently be seen as non-linear electrical measurements (on human skin) [ 22 ]. Furthermore, these can be seen as part of Bioimpedance, since this field encompasses the passive electrical properties (memristor = fourth passive electrical circuit element) of organic tissues and corresponding recording techniques [ 23 ]. Materials and methods Subject recruitment, approval The measurements were conducted on 28 test subjects (16 male, 12 female, mean age 31 years, SD = 9.5 years; all gave informed consent for participation in the study) at the University of Oslo in

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W. Gawędzki

of conversion function). Pomiary, Automatyka, Kontrola 10 bis, 196-199. Gawędzki, W. (2006). Self-calibration methods in measurement channels for linear and non-linear conversion functions case. In Proceedings of the IEEE IMTC 2006, 24-27 April 2006 (pp. 1506-1510). Sorrento, Italy. CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC (2001). Voltage measurement accuracy, self-calibration, and ratiometric measurements . Inc. Logan, Utah. Retrieved from http

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Archives of Electrical Engineering

The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

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Jabril A. Khamaj

flakes. After several times of repeated peeling-off, thin graphite flakes were identified by using an optical microscope and were transferred on the substrate. Silver paste was used to deposit electrical contacts which were then annealed at 200 °C to lower the contact resistance. Gallium (Ga + ) ions were irradiated on the thin graphite flake for 30 s. This was performed inside the chamber with focused ion beam (FIB). Low-and room-temperature electrical transport measurements were performed using cryo-cooler (helium compressor unit) in which the temperature could be

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Mehran Erza, Etienne Gaviot, Guy Lemarquand, Pascal Tournier, Lionel Camberlein, Stephane Durand and Frederic Polet

. Meriläinen E. (2009), Current-driving of Loudspeakers, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, USA. 12. Merit B., Lemarquand V., Lemarquand G., Dobrucki A. (2009), Motor nonlinearities in electrodynamic loudspeakers: modelling and measurement, Archives of Acoustics, 34, 4, 407-418. 13. Mills P.G.L., Hawksford M.O.J. (1989), Distortion Reduction in Moving-Coil Loudspeaker Systems Using Current-drive technology, Journal of Audio Engineering Society, 37, 3, 129-149. 14. Ravaud R., Lemarquand G., Roussel T. (2009), Time-varying non linear modeling of electrodynamic

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Bence Csomós, Dénes Fodor and Gábor Kohlrusz

REFERENCES [1] Piller, S.; Perrin, M.; Jossen, A.: Methods for state-of-charge determination and their application, Journal of Power Sources , 2001 96 (1), 113–120 DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(01)00560-2 [2] Spagnol, P.; Rossi, S.; Savaresi, S.M.: Kalman filter SoC estimation for Li-ion batteries, IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, 28-30 Sept. 2011, Denver, USA, ISSN 1085-1992 [3] Devarakonda, L.; Wang, H.; Hu, T.: Parameter identification of circuit models for lead-acid batteries under non-zero initial conditions, American

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T. Kaczorek

‒23 (2004). [13] T. Kaczorek, “Zeroing of state variables in descriptor electrical circuits by state-feedbacks”, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny 89(10), 200‒203 (2013) [in Polish]. [14] M. Ait Rami and F. Tadeo, “Controller synthesis for positive linear systems with bounded controls”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems 54(2), 151‒155 (2007). [15] T. Kaczorek and K. Borawski, “Stability of continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems with inverse state matrices”, Measurement Automation Monitoring 62(4), 132‒135 (2016). [16] Ł. Sajewski

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A. Ogurcovs, Vj. Gerbreders, E. Tamanis, S. Gerbreders and G. Liberts

Photoelectric Properties of Screen-Printed Al-Doped ZnO Films

The potential of cheap semiconductor materials in the area of solar energy use is illustrated by the example of zinc oxide (pure and Al-doped in various concentrations). Under investigation was the electric conductivity and photoelectric properties of ZnO thin films. The samples were prepared using screen-printing technique. The results of measurements point to non-linear relationships between Al concentration, photosensitivity and electrical conductivity of thin ZnO films. Optimal Al concentration for practical use of ZnO in photovoltaic devices is found to be ~ 1%. The experimental methods, technologies and results described in the paper could be used for further investigations in this area.

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P. Struhovský, O. Šubrt, J. Hospodka and P. Martinek

References Capofreddi, P. D. & Wooley B. A. (1999). The Efficiency of Methods For Measuring A/D Converter Linearity. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 48 (3), 763-769 Burns, M. & Roberts, G. W. (2001). An Introduction to Mixed-Signal IC Test and Measurement. (pp. 447-481). Oxford University Press, New York The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (2000). IEEE Standard for Terminology and Test Methods for Analog-to-Digital Converters. IEEE