1. Shune S, Moon JB. Neuromuscularelectricalstimulation in dysphagia management: clinician use and perceived barriers. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders. 2012;39:55-68.
2. Ashford J, McCabe D, Wheeler-Hegland K, Frymark T, Mullen R, Musson N, et al. Evidence-based systematic review: Oropharyngeal disphagia behavioral treatments. Part III – Impact of dysphagia treatments on populations with neurological disorders. J Rehab Res Develop. 2009;46(2):195-204.
3. Huckabee ML, Doeltgen S. Emerging modalities in
sensor to improve walking outcomes: a randomized controlled pilot study in patients with stroke in subacute phase. Stroke Res Treat, 2012;2012:523564
26. Neder JA, Sword D, Ward SA. et al. Home based neuromuscularelectricalstimulation as a new rehabilitative strategy for severely disabled patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thorax, 2002; 57:333-337
27. Nuhr MJ,Pette D, Berger R. et al. Beneficial effects of chronic low-frequency stimulation of thigh muscles in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Eur
suggest that neuromuscularelectricalstimulation (NMES) of the lower limbs may serve as an alternative to traditional physical training in patients with COPD in periods of exacerbation of symptoms or with locomotor disorders which hinder the performance of traditional physical exercises ( Banerjee, 2010 ). As presented in contemporary studies, NMES can be applied safely in patients with COPD during periods of exacerbation of symptoms, in advanced stages of COPD or even in patients undergoing respiratory therapy. Another important aspect of NMES is that patients feel
Maciej Cieśliński, Ewa Jówko, Tomasz Sacewicz, Igor Cieśliński and Maciej Płaszewski
neuromuscularelectricalstimulation. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 81(6), 446-51.
6. Bogdanis G.C. (2012). Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue. Frontiers in Physiology 3(142), 1-15. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00142.
7. Lavender A.P., Nosaka K. (2007). Fluctuations of isometric force after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors of young, middle-aged, and old men. European Journal of Applied Physiology 100(2), 161-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-007-0418-7.
8. Cheung K., Hume P., Maxwell L
Cezary Kucio, Petr Stastny, Bożena Leszczyńska-Bolewska, Małgorzata Engelmann, Ewa Kucio, Petr Uhlir, Magdalena Stania and Anna Polak
assistance in activities of daily living ( Flynn et al., 2009 ).
Research suggests that lower extremity neuromuscularelectricalstimulation (NMES) can be an alternative to conventional physical training. NMES is reported to increase exercise tolerance, muscle mass and endurance, to improve muscular blood circulation, aerobic enzyme activity and vascular endothelium function, to decrease the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to improve quality of life ( Deley et al., 2008 ; Dobsak et al., 206 ; Karavidas et al., 2006 , 2008 ; Soska et al., 2012). It is
Sam D. Blacker, Joanne L. Fallowfield, James L.J. Bilzon and Mark E.T. Willems
task-related occupational requirements for Royal Naval personnel. Occup Med (Lond) , 2002; 52: 503-510
Blacker SD, Fallowfield JL, Bilzon J, Willems ME. Physiological responses to load carriage during level and downhill treadmill walking. Med Sport , 2009; 13: 108-124
Blacker SD, Fallowfield JL, Bilzon JL, Willems ME. Neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage on level and downhill gradients. Aviat Space Environ Med , 2010; 81: 745-753
Byrne C, Twist C, Eston R. Neuromuscular function after exercise
Joanna Mazur–Różycka, Jan Gajewski, Krzysztof Buśko, Radosław Michalski and Patrycja Łach
Study aim: to evaluate the differences in H-reflex parameters in lying and standing positions in canoeists.
Material and methods: twenty seven male canoeists (age 17.2 ± 1.6 year, body mass 73.7 ± 7.6 kg, height 180.9 ± 6.1 cm, training experience 6.5 ± 3.6 years) participated in the study. None of the subjects had any history of neuromuscular disorders. The soleus H-reflex was examined in each subject twice: in lying and standing position. H-reflex was elicited by one-millisecond electrical stimulation of a posterior tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa. A recruitment curve for each subject was obtained by gradually increasing the stimulus intensity.
Results: the results obtained in the present study showed statistically significant differences of the variables characterising effects of stimulations performed in lying and standing positions (F4,23 = 8.063; p < 0.001). H/M ratio was 0.50 ± 0.25 and 0.64 ± 0.27 for lying and standing positions, respectively. Our results support previous findings.
Conclusions: the lying position is recommended for measurements as more comfortable for subjects and providing a greater level of the elicited H-reflex.
Meng Yue, Zhan-Ying Ma, Meng-Jie Lei, Chu-Yun Cui and Yi Jin
mobilization, and respiratory muscle training) or novel mobilization techniques (for example, cycle ergometry or neuromuscularelectricalstimulation), and EM possesses prominentsuperiority if it is initiated from an early stage (less than 5–7 days). 12 , 13 As a progressive mobility protocol, the mobilization starts with a series of planned movements and sets the goal of recovering to the previous level of functioning. The protocol consisted of several levels of activities that go forward one by one, and it also stipulates the time, frequency, duration, and suspended