]. Jongsomjit, D., Jones, S. L., Gardali, T., Geupel, G. R., Gouse, P. J. 2007. A Guide to nestling development and aging in altricial passerines. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Technical Publication, Washington, D. C., 2-66. Mal’chevsky, A. S. 1959. Breeding life of song birds. Reproduction and postembryonic development of sylvan passerine birds of European part of the USSR, 1-281 [In Russian]. Marisova, I. V. 1968. On postembryonic development of Song thrush and Blackbird. Ornitology, 8, 372-373 [In Russian
V. N. Peskov, M. V. Franchuk and N. S. Atamas
Piotr Kamiński, Leszek Jerzak and Joerg Boehner
Wren in relation to nest orientation. Condor 76: 216-217. Balda, R.P. & G.C. Bateman (1971): Flocking and annual cycle of the Pinon Jay, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus . Condor 73: 287-302. Balda, R.P. & G.C. Bateman (1973): The breading biology of the Pinon Jay. Living Bird 11: 5-42. Blem, C.R. (1975): Energetics of nestling House Sparrows Passer domesticus . Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 52 A: 305-312. Breymeyer, A. (1971): Productivity investigation of two types of meadows in the Vistula valley. XIII. Some regularities in structure and function of
G. 1971. Growth and calculation of age for Red-Winged Blackbird nestlings. Bird- Banding 42: 1-17. Johannesson H. 1967. Wing-length and error of measurement - an attempt at an analysis. Vår Fågelv. 26: 249-255. Kania W. 1982. Probability method of ageing of the passerine nestlings and its usage in breeding phenology investigations. Ring 110: 1-7. Kania W. 1983. Probability method of ageing of the passerine nestlings and its usage in breeding phenology investigations of Starling
Martin Kaľavský and Barbora Pospíšilová
America. Journal of Medical Entomology 10(5): 526-527. Dawson RD & Bortolotti GR 1997: Ecology of parasitism of nestling American kestrels by Carnus hemapterus (Diptera: Carnidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 75: 2021-2026. Fargallo JA, Blanco G, Potti J & Viñuela J 2001: Nestbox provisioning in a rural population of Eurasian kestrels: breeding performance, nest predation and parasitism. Bird Study 48: 236-244. Fitzner RE & Woodley NE 1985: Carnus hemapterus Nitzsch from Swainson's hawk
Bogna Bartosz, Agata Lewandowska and Iga Antczak
Our article deals with the problem of ‘nestlings’ - young adults who postpone the moment of entering adulthood. A brief review of data and research results indicates that delays in undertaking developmental tasks typical of adulthood refer to a professional job, starting a family or a relationship, and gaining independence (not only financially). We discuss cultural, economic and psychological contexts of nestling, and attempt to answer the question whether waiting for adulthood is a global problem or a problem specific to only certain countries or just to Poland. It seems necessary to undertake research on this phenomenon. Nestling ought to be explored not only from the adult child’ perspective but from the parental perspective as well.
Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Kai Graszynski, Torsten Langgemach, Paul Sömmer and Ugis Bergmanis
a: Sibbling aggression and mortality among nestling eagles. Ibis 116: 224-228. Meyburg B-U 1974b: Zur Brutbiologie und taxonomischen Stellung des Schreiadlers. Falke 21: 126-134, 166-171. Meyburg B-U 1975: Protective management of eagles by reduction of nestling mortality, 387-391. In: Chancellor RD (ed): World Conference on Birds of Prey. Report of Proceedings. ICBP, London, 442. Meyburg B-U 1978a: Sibling aggression and cross-fostering of eagles, 195-200. In: Temple SA (ed): Endangered
The population of House Sparrows in most of European cities declined in the end of the XX century (De Laet & Summers-Smith 2007). One of the presumable reasons of this decline is loss of nest sites. The House sparrow is a secondary hole-nester (Anderson 2006) and places its nest in holes of buildings, shrubs and nest boxes. The rate of nest box occupation depends on the location and competition with other species (Anderson T.R. 2006).
The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of nest box occupation by House sparrows in Zielona Góra, Western Poland, which can provide information about the availability of nesting sites.
I. V. Muraviev and E. A. Artemieva
Species-specific features of blackheaded wagtail, Motacilla feldegg Michahelles, 1830, breeding biology were identified in the Rostov oblast of Russia. A tendency to current species range shift is traced.
V. N. Peskov, M. V. Franchuk and N. S. Atamas’
. N., Tarasenko, M. O., Franchuk, M. V. 2013. Variability of linear sizes, body proportions and periodization of nestling development of Lanius collurio collurio L. Branta: Sbornik nauchnyh trudov Azovo- Chernomorskoy ornitologicheskoy stancii, is. 16, 63-78 [In Russian]. Poznanin, L. P. 1979. Ecomorphological analysis of onthogenesis of altricial birds. Nauka, Moscow, 1-294 [In Russian]. Rodimtcev, A. S., Konstantinov, V. M. 2006. Ecology of early onthogenesis of corvids. Prometey, Moscow, 1-312 [In Russian
Piotr Zduniak and Paweł Czechowski
knowledge and future research – In: Jerzak L., Kavanagh B.P., Tryjanowski P. (eds) – Corvids of Poland – Bogucki Wyd. Nauk., Poznań. pp. 113-125. Zduniak P. 2009 – Reproductive success of the Hooded Crow Corvus cornix population in relation to variable hydrological conditions in a flooded river valley (W Poland) – Ardeola 56: 13-24. Zduniak P. 2010 – Water conditions influence nestling survival in a Hooded Crow Corvus cornix wetland population – Journal of Ornithology 151: 45-50. Zduniak P., Kosicki J.Z., Gołdyn B. 2008 – Un-paint it black: Avian