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Open access

Fuad Namik Salimov

Abstract

One of the main reasons of salinization of irrigated lands in arid areas, including vast areas in Azerbaijan, is watering by high application doses exceeding by 1.3-2.0 times the doses sufficient for crops. The principle of drop irrigation is that water reaches only the root zone of a plant, whereas the amount and periodicity of water distribution is very exact and technically simply adjusted to the needs of the plant in each phase of its growth. The obtained results indicate practicability of the implementation of drop irrigation in a large production scale.

Open access

Leszek Łabędzki

Irrigation in Poland — current status after reforms in agriculture and future development

The paper characterizes the status, trends and perspectives of irrigation in Poland after the reforms in agriculture and technology. Irrigation in Poland has supplemental character. It is used in short periods during the growing season and plays an important role in mitigating the effects of drought on crop production. Sub-irrigation from ditches is applied on permanent grasslands, sprinkling — in field cultivation of arable crops, sprinkling and drip irrigation — in vegetable growing in open areas, micro-jets and drip irrigation systems — in orchards. Drip irrigation and micro-jets systems are also applied in plant cultivation in greenhouses.

Under the economic conditions of Polish agriculture irrigation is often an unprofitable measure. The existing irrigation systems and facilities are only used to a small extent. After changes in the forms of ownership in agriculture, the large-area sprinkling systems were degraded. Small irrigation systems, mainly drip irrigation and micro-sprinkler irrigation, have recently become more common in private farms. Sub-irrigation systems are largely degraded and used only to a small extent if at all. In order to use these systems more effectively, it is necessary to reconstruct and modernize them. In many cases the factor preventing the use of irrigation systems is the deficit of water of required quality and its availability. Besides unfavourable economic conditions, it is one of the main limitations in the development of irrigation in Poland.

Open access

Józef Babik, Stanisław Kaniszewski and Jacek Dyśko

References Babik J., Dudek J. 2000. New, complex machine for ridge forming, and simultaneous sowing vegetable crops. Veget. Crops Res. Bull. 53: 103-110. Babik J., Dudek J., Dyśko J., Kaniszewski S., 2005. Prototyp urządzenia do mechanicznego układania i wyciągania emiterów liniowych w nawodnieniach podpowierzchniowych. Materiały z konferencji pt "Nawadnianie warzyw w uprawach polowych", Skierniewice 2005. [in Polish] Błażewicz-Woźniak M. 1997. [Effect of some agrotechnic factors

Open access

Jacek Dyśko and Stanisław Kaniszewski

. Bull. 50: 21-30. Kaniszewski S., Rumpel J., Dyśko J. 1999b. Effect of drip irrigation and fertigation on growth and yield of celeriac (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum (Mill.) Gaud). Veget. Crops Res. Bull. 50: 31-39. Kaniszewski S., Rumpel J., Dyśko J. 1999c. Response of leek to irrigation, fertigation and broadcast nitrogen fertilization. Veget. Crops Res. Bull. 51: 39-47. Kaniszewski S. 2006. Nawadnianie warzyw. pp: 295-332. In: Nawadnianie roślin (St. Karczmarczyk, L. Nowak ed

Open access

Tomasz Spiżewski and Mikołaj Knaflewski

-57. Hartz T.K., Hochmuth G.J. 1996. Fertility management of drip-irrigated vegetables. HortTechnology 6 (3): 168-172. Hochmuth G.J. 1994. Current status of drip irrigation for vegetables in Southeastern and midAtlantic United States. HortTechnology 4: 390-393. Jeznach J., Pierzgalski E. 1996. Przyrodnicze i techniczne trendy rozwoju mikronawodnień. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 438: 175-182. [in Polish] Kaniszewski S. 2005. Nawadnianie warzyw polowych. Wydawnictwo Plantpress Sp. z o.o. 92

Open access

Laszlo Lakatos and Andrzej Żyromski

Abstract

Micro irrigation is a horticultural practice mainly used to supply water to the orchard. Nevertheless the micro sprayed irrigation has a powerful influence on fruit microclimatic parameters as temperature and air humidity. By the application we can improve the fruit quality parameters as anthocianine, C-vitamin, sugar content of the fruits. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20°C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation significantly decreases the plants’ surface temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. The beneficial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a apricot, peach, plum, apple and pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity.

The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jet influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20°C), the drop of temperature may attain 5-7°C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at 15 minutes intervals for ten times a day, the temperature could be kept low also in the buds. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for 8-14 day at different fruit species. Blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one, in spite of equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured fruit yields.

Open access

Igor Ljubenkov

Abstract

The island of Korčula is located along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It has Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot and dry summers. The island's water supply has been managed in two ways: through a pipeline from the mainland and by drawing groundwater. The island's water is mainly used for drinking and for sanitary needs of the population and tourists, and only a small part is used in industrial production. Tourism causes high seasonal water needs which can hardly be met with the existing water supply system. Agriculture has long tradition on the island. Today, 3 500 ha are cultivated which is about 12.7% of island area, while only 20 ha are irrigated. Therefore total agricultural production is variable and mainly depends on climate. Due to more often and stronger droughts, yields are decreased which causes high economical losses. This paper deals with island's natural features, water needs especially for agriculture, water resources management and finally it suggests measures and activities to improve existing water use.

Open access

Stanisław Włodek, Andrzej Biskupski and Jan Pabin

Znaczenie Ilości Opadów DLA Produkcyjności Roślin w Uproszczonych Systemach Uprawy Roli

Open access

Davor Romić, Monika Zovko, Marija Romić, Gabrijel Ondrašek and Zoran Salopek

Quality aspects of the surface water used for irrigation in the Neretva Delta (Croatia)

The research was set up in the Neretva River valley in the Southern part of Croatian Karst area, where implementation of modern hydrotechnical practices within the river catchment's area led to intrusion of seawater to groundwater resulting in soil salinization in the delta. The region has great agro-ecological potential for intensive production of vegetables and Mediterranean fruits. Since the combination of the effects of saline groundwater and the use of this water for irrigation may have disastrous effects on the productivity of agricultural soils water, a project was started in order to set up a permanent monitoring network. The aim of this study was to determine the salt dynamics in the surface water on five locations which are considered as potential sources of the irrigation water (Modric canal, Neretva River near Opuzen, Crepina, Jasenska and Vidrice pumping station) during a 4-year period (1999-2002). The surface water samples had been collected on monthly basis and analyzed for all parameters required in the irrigation water quality classification. The results show considerable spatial and temporal variability of determined parameters. Thus, in the Neretva River near Opuzen, total salt concentrations in water ranged from 0.4 to 7.7 dS·m−1, and in Modric from 1.65 up to 17.2 dS·m−1. Dominant cations and anions on all observed locations were Na+ and Cl. Constantly high concentration of Na+ in sampled surface waters is of a special concern. Utilization of the water of such quality may cause problems related to the use of alkaline waters for irrigation, which can further cause permanent loss of fertile soil.

Open access

Ewa Rożek

)]. Folia Hort., Supl. 1 : 123-127. [in Polish with English summary] Kaniszewski S. 2005. Nawadnianie warzyw. PWRiL.Warszawa. pp. 85. [in Polish] Kaniszewski S., Rumpel J., Dyśko J. 1999. Effect of drip irrigation and fertigation on growth and yield of celeriac ( Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum ). Veget. Crops Res. Bull. 50 : 31-39. Knaflewski M. 1982. Wpływ nawadniania na jakość, skład mineralny i przechowalność korzeni czterech odmian selera. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 236 : 75