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Spatial Planning as a Tool for Effective Nature Conservation: A Conceptual Framework for Turkey’s Spatial Planning System

R eferences Bastian, O., Grunewald, K., Syrbe, R.U., Walz, U. & Wende, W. (2014). Landscape services: the concept and its practical relevance. Landscape Ecology . 29(9), 1463-1479. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-014-0064-5. Bosso, L., Rebelo, H., Garonna, A.P. & Russo, D. (2013). Modelling geographic distribution and detecting conservation gaps in Italy for the threatened beetle Rosalia Alpina. Journal for Nature Conservation . 21(2), 72-80. DOI: . Bürgi, M., Bieling, C., von Hackwitz, K., Kizos, T., Lieskovsky

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Assessing the importance of High Nature Value farmlands for the conservation of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni

References Araujo, M.B., Thuiller, W., Williams, P.H. & Reginster, I. (2005) Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14, 17-30. Batáry, P., Dicks, L.V., Kleijn, D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2015) The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology, 29 (4), 1006-1016. Beaufoy, G. & Cooper, T. (2009) The Application of the High Nature Value Impact Indicator 2007

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Towards synergy between tourism and nature conservation. The challenge for the rural regions: the case of Drawskie lake district, Poland

przyrodniczych obszarach chronionych. Rynek Turystyczny 13-14: 9-11. Kassener, K. & Wassermann P. (2002). Nicht überall, wo Methode draufsteht, ist auch Methode drin. Zur Problematik der Fundierung von ExpertInneninterviews. In: Bogner, A., Littig, B. & Menz, W. (Eds.), Das Experteninterview. Theorie, Methode, Anwendung (pp. 95-111). Opladen: Leske + Budrich. Kistowski, M. (2003). Does Polish system of physical planning ensure effective nature conservation? Przegląd przyrodniczy 14 (3-4): 19

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Effect of Changes in Land Use During the 20th Century on Woodland and Calcareous Grassland Vegetation in Southern Poland

-lived forbs in chalk grasslands: dispersal of seeds. New Phytol. 95: 335-344. Wallisdevries, M. F., Poschlod, P., Willems, J. H. 2002. Challenges for the conservation of calcareous grasslands in northwestern Europe: integrating the requirements of flora and fauna. Biol. Conserv. 104: 265-273. Ward, L. K., Jennings, R. D. 1990. Succession of disturbed and undisturbed chalk grassland at Aston Rowant National Nature Reserve: dynamics of species changes. J. Appl. Ecol. 27: 897-912. Warr, S. J., Kent

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The place of community values within community-based conservation: The case of Driftsands Nature Reserve, Cape Town

References Berkes, F., 2007: Community-based conservation in a globalized world. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 104(39), pp. 15188-15193. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0702098104 Biodiversity Information System for Europe, sine anno: Ecosystem services. Available at:, DoA: 10.01.2018. Brockington, D., Duffy, R. and Igoe, J., 2008: Nature Unbound: conservation, capitalism and the future of protected areas

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The need for verification of the Polish lignite deposits owing to development and nature conservation protection on land at the surface


Poland is a country rich in lignite. The area where the lignite occurs occupies approx. 22% of the total surface area of the country. Geological resources of Polish lignite deposits are estimated at 23.5 billion Mg, but in the majority (69%) the accuracy of their identification is poor. Nevertheless the amount of coal in Polish deposits allows - at least in theory - for mining and energy production at the current level for hundreds of years to come. It is an important raw material for the energy security of the country both currently and in the future. Because the vast majority of Polish and foreign mines use an open pit method for lignite extraction the actual amount of mineral available for the extraction depends not only on the properties of the deposit but to a large extent on the method of development of the surface land above the deposit, as well as on the sensitivity of the environment in the vicinity of any future mines. After careful analysis it can be stated that only a few of the lignite deposits may be subject to cost-effective mining operations. These deposits should be subjected to special protection as a future resource base which will ensure the energy security of the country. Some examples of domestic deposits have been presented where due to the conflict resulting from the development of the area should be deleted from the Balance Sheet of Mineral Deposits because their exploitation is irrational and uneconomic. Keeping such deposits in the Balance Sheet, and the use of large numbers in the context of their resource base leads to an unwarranted sense of wealth which consequently does not encourage the protection of these deposits which may actually be subject to rational exploitation in the near future. In summary there is a need to find a compromise in order to adequately protect all natural resources including mineral deposits.

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Cross-Border Comparison of Non-Forest Woody Vegetation in the White Carpathians (Central Europe) Over Last 65 Years

Environ. 57, 345-364. Plieninger, T., Höchtl F. & Spek T. (2006). Traditional land-use and nature conservation in European rural landscapes. Environ. Sci. Policy, 9, 317-321. Primdahl, J., Kristensen L. & Swaffield S. (2013). Guiding rural landscape change. Current policy approaches and potentials of Landscape strategy making as a policy integrating approach. Appl. Geogr. 42, 86-94. Rempel, R.S., Kaukinen D. & Carr A.P. (2012). PatchAnalyst and PatchGrid. ThunderBay , Ontario: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Centre for Northern Forest

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Ecotourism revisited: Last twenty-five years

. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 484–497). Malden, MA/Oxford, UK/Carlton, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas: The State of Nature-based Tourism around the World and Guidelines for Its Development . Gland, Switzerland: Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature et de ses Ressources. Cobbinah, P. B. (2015). Contextualising the meaning of ecotourism. Tourism Management Perspectives , 16, 179–189. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmp.2015.07.015. Cristureanu, C. (2006

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Action Research in Landscape Ecology (Šumava Biosphere Reserve, Czech Republic Case Study )

Environmental Sciences, 4(1), 30-36. DOI: 10.14712/23361964.2015.2. Kušová, D., Těšitel, J., Matějka, K. & Bartoš M. (2005a). Nature conservation and socio-economic development in selected protected areas. Ekologia (Bratislava), 24(Suppl. 1), 109-124. Kušová, D., Těšitel, J. & Bartoš M. (2005b). Medial image of the relation between nature conservation and socioeconomic development in selected protected areas. Silva Gabreta, 11(2), 123-133. Kušová, D., Těšitel, J., Matějka, K. & Bartoš M. (2006). Socio-economic conditions in

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Concerns about the use of ecosystem services as a tool for nature conservation: From misleading concepts to providing a “price” for nature, but not a “value”

.R., Nghiem, T.P.L., Sunderland, T. & Koh, L.P. (2014) Economic valuation of ecosystem services fails to capture biodiversity value of tropical forests. Biol. Conserv., 178, 163-170. Currie, W.S. (2011) Units of nature or processes across scales? The ecosystem concept at age 75. New Phytol., 190, 21-34. Egoh, B., Reyers, B., Rouget, M., Bode, M. & Richardson, D.M. (2009) Spatial congruence between biodiversity and ecosystem services in South Africa. Biol. Conserv., 142, 553-562. Ferraro, P.J. & Kiss, A. (2002) Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science, 298, 1718

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