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Avo Karus, Fabrizio Ceciliani, Armand Sanches Bonastre and Virge Karus

concentration of food-borne pathogens in food samples prior to quantification by viable-cell counting and real-time PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol, 73(1): 92-100. PMid:17056684 PMCid:PMC1797114 6. Fukushima, H., Kawase, J., Etoh, Y., Sugama, K., Yashiro, S., Iida, N., Yamaguchi, K. (2010). Simultaneous screening of 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in 35 foodborne outbreaks using multiplex real-time SYBR green PCR analysis. International Journal of Microbiology 12010, Article ID 864817, 18 pages.

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M.T. Rahimi, S. Sarvi, A. Daryani, M. Sharif, E. Ahmadpour, A. Shokri and A. Mizani

, particularly in the discrimination of eggs ( McManus, 2006 ). Among different PCR methods, multiplex PCR is considered useful for the detection of taeniid eggs from both individual animals, as well as in epidemiological studies ( Trachsel, et al ., 2007 ). A previous study (Yamasaki et al ., 2004) had successfully demonstrated a multiplex PCR assay for the differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans (Taenia saginata, T. asiatica , and T. solium ). This technique is therefore very useful in the accurate identification of Taeniid cestode eggs, and

Open access

L. Hu, X.Y. Lin, Z.X. Yang, X.P. Yao, G.L. Li, S.Z. Peng and Y. Wang

References Aguero M, Fernhndez J, Romero L, Zamora MJ, Shnchez C, Belhk S, Arias M, Shnchez-Vizcatno JM ( 2004 ) A highly sensitive and specific gel-based multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous and differential diagnosis of African swine fever and classical swine fever in clinical samples. Vet Res 35: 551-563. Cao S, Chen H, Zhao J, Lü J, Xiao S, Jin M, Guo A, Wu B, He Q ( 2005 ) Detection of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus and porcine pseudorabies virus from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by multiplex PCR. Vet

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M. Michalczyk, R. Sokół, A. Szczerba-Turek and A. Bancerz-Kisiel

A comparison of the effectiveness of the microscopic method and the multiplex PCR method in identifying and discriminating the species of Nosema spp. spores in worker bees (Apis mellifera) from winter hive debris

The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the multiplex PCR method and traditional light microscopy in identifying and discriminating the species of Nosema spp. spores in worker bees from winter hive debris in the Province of Warmia and Mazury (NE Poland). A total of 1000 beesdead after from the bottom of the hive from bee colonies were analyzed. Spores were identified with the use of a light microscope (400-600x magnification). Spores were assigned to species by the multiplex PCR method. The microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of Nosema spp. spores in 803 samples (80.3%). Nosema ceranae spores were observed in 353 positive samples (43.96%), Nosema apis spores were found in 300 samples (37.35%), while 150 samples (19.67%) showed signs of a mixed infection. A multiplex PCR analysis revealed that 806 samples were infested with Nosema spp., of which 206 were affected only by Nosema ceranae, 600 showed signs of mixed invasion, while no samples were infected solely by Nosema apis parasites. In two cases, the presence of spores detected under a light microscope was not confirmed by the PCR analysis.

The results of the study indicate that Nosema ceranae is the predominant parasitic species found in post-winter worker bees from the bottom of the hive in the region of Warmia and Mazury.

Open access

Ferenc Kiskároly, Ivana Morić, Lidija Đokić, Branka Vasiljević, Lidija Šenerović and Dušan Mišić

and Blackwell, 4th Edition; 2010. 10. Winn W, Allen S, Janda W, Koneman E, Procop G, Schreckenberger P, Woods G: Koneman’s color atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th Edition; 2006. 11. McQuiston JR, Parrenas R, Ortiz-Rivera M, Gheesling L, Brenner F, Fields PI: Sequencing and comparative analysis of flagellin genes fliC , fljB , and flpA from Salmonella . J Clin Microbiol 2004, 42:1923-32. 12. Kim S, Frye JG, Hu J, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Gautom R, Boyle DS: Multiplex PCR

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Dragana Jošić, Jelena Petković, Olivera Bunčić, Zorica Lepšanović, Radmila Pivić, Zoran Rašić and Vera Katić

A, Senok AC, Ismaeel AY, Al-Mahmeed AE, Botta GA: Multiplex PCR for direct identification of Campylobacter spp. in human and chicken stools. J Med Microbiol 2007, 56:1350-1355. 22. Linton D, Lawson AJ, Owen RJ, Stanley J: PCR Detection, Identification to Species Level, and Fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Direct from Diarrheic Samples. J Clin Microbiol 1997, 35:2568-2572. 23. Sinha S, Prasad KN, Pradhan S, Jain D, Jha S: Detection of preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection by polymerase chain reaction

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O. Lepais, V. Léger and Sophie Gerber

and uniparentally inherited markers. Molecular Ecology Notes 3: 479-481. HENEGARIU, O., N. A. HEEREMA, S. R. DLOUHY, G. H. VANCE and P. H. VOGT (1997): Multiplex PCR: critical parameters and step-by-step protocol. Biotechniques 23: 504-511. KAMPFER, S., C. LEXER, J. GLÖSSL and H. STEINKELLNER (1998): Characterization of (GA)n microsatellite loci from Quercus robur. Hereditas 129: 183-186. RAYMOND, M. and F. ROUSSET (1995): GENEPOP version 1.2. population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. Journal of

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Hamid Staji and Ladan Zandiar

REFERENCES 1. Pan, Z. M., Geng, S. Z., Zhou, Y. Q., Liu, Z. Y., Fang, Q., Liu, B. B., Jiao, X. A. (2010). Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from domestic animals in Eastern China. J Anim Vet Adv. 9 (17): 2290-2294. 2. Herrera-León, S., Ramiro, R., Arroyo, M., Díez, R., Usera, M. A., Echeita, M. A. (2007). Blind comparison of traditional serotyping with three multiplex PCRs for the identification of Salmonella serotypes. Res Microbil. 158 (2): 122-127.

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A. Dzialuk and J. Burczyk

Forest Research 32: 469-476. TANG, S. X., KISHORE, V. K. and KNAPP, S. J. (2003): PCR-multiplexesfor a genome-wide framework of simple sequence repeat marker loci in cultivated sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 107: 6-19. VENDRAMIN, G. G., LELLI, L., ROSSI, P. and MORGANTE, M. (1996): A set of primers for the amplification of 20 chloroplast microsatellites in Pinaceae. Molecular Ecology 5: 595-598. WALTER, R. and EPPERSON, B. K. (2001): Geographic pattern of genetic variation in Pinus resinosa: area of greatest

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Maria R. Pavlova, Elina G. Dobreva, Katucha I. Ivanova, Galina D. Asseva, Ivan N. Ivanov, Peter K. Petrov, Valeri R. Velev, Ivelina I. Tomova, Maida M. Tiholova and Todor V. Kantardjiev

city. Int J Enteric Pathog 2015;3(2);e21796. 20. Khalid A Enan, Abdel Rahim M. El Hussein, Elbrissi Atif, et al. Multiplex PCR for direct identifi cation of Campylobacter species in human stool. JBPRAU 2015;4(3):70- 73. 21. Ivanova K, Мarinа M, Petrov P, Kantardjiev T. Campylobacteriosis and other bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in Sofi a, Bulgaria for the period 1987 -2008. Euro Surveill 2010;15(4):19474.