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Robert Schneider

Major College Basketball in the United States: Morality, Amateurism, and Hypocrisies

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and member institutions' presentation of major college basketball in the United States as an endeavor of amateurism is contradictory to the realities of college basketball. Discussed are the following amateurism related hypocrisies: a) requiring players to fully engage in formally structured basketball activities as a priority over education, b) expansion of the post season March Madness tournament regardless of the fact that players will miss more classes, c) compensating basketball coaches with salaries contingent on success defined by winning, and d) the athletic scholarship. Literature supports amateurism hypocrisies in major college basketball (Bermuda 2010, Colombo 2010, Sundram 2010). Understanding the effect of NCAA and member institution hypocritical behavior on determining the moral standing of major college basketball is discussed in the context of claims by Grant (1997), that Machiavelli recognized the necessity of political hypocrisy. A utilitarian analysis using Jeremy Bentham's holistic utilitarian approach calling for the agent to "sum up all the values of all the pleasures on the one side, and those of all the pains on the other" (p. 39) to determine the degree of morality, indicates a presence of morality in major college basketball. Under the premise that major college basketball is an extension of core values held by higher education, Aristotle's Golden Mean (Aristotle, 1941) is used to help identify a point of balanced moral perspective concerning sentiments of the sporting community held for the sport. The end goal is to maintain major college basketball's strong level of satisfaction among members of the sporting community, while controlling the false representation of amateurism surrounding it to preserve the moral and structural integrity of major college basketball.

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Rolf Kretschmann and Caroline Benz

: Greenwood. Schroeder, P. J., & Scribner, J. P. (2006). "To Honor and Glorify God": The Role of Religion in One Intercollegiate Athletics Culture. Sport, Education and Society, 11 (1), 39-54. Schweiker, W. (2005). The Blackwell Companion to Religious Ethics . Oxford: Blackwell. Slusher, H. (1992). Sport: Morality and Ethics. In S. J. Hoffman (Ed.), Sport and Religion (pp. 227-236). Champaign: Human Kinetics. Sternberg, T. (2003). Geschichte der christlichen

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Kuba Krys and Bogdan Wojciszke

from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878-902. Fredrickson, B. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226. Goodwin, G.P., Piazza, J., & Rozin, P. (2014). Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 148-168. Haidt, J., & Kesebir, S. (2010). Morality. In S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds

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Giedrė Dzemydaitė and Ieva Savilionytė

References Alm, J., Torgler, B. (2011). Do ethics matter? Tax compliance and morality. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(4), 635-651. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0761-9. Alm, J., Torgler, B. (2006). Culture differences and tax morale in the United States and in Europe. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27(2), 224-246. doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2005.09.002. Čiutienė, R., Meilienė, E., Savanevičienė, A., Vaitkevičius, S. (2015). Interdependence between human capital and the power of a shadow economy: Lithuanian case study

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Eckart Voland

animal societies. Nature 373:209-16. Darwin CR. 1838. Notebook M [Metaphysics on morals and speculations on expression]. CUL-DAR125. Transcribed by K Rookmaaker, edited by Paul Barrett. (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/) Accessed 5 June 2013. Das Gupta M. 1987. Selective discrimination against female children in rural Punjab, India. Popul Dev Revi 13:77-100. DeScioli P, Kurzban R. 2009. Mysteries of morality. Cognition 112:281-99. De Waal FBM. 2006. Primates and philosophers: How

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Ľubica Učník

Abstract

In this paper, I will argue that Patočka’s decision to become a signatory and one of the spokesperson of Charter 77 was both deeply informed, and in fact necessitated, by his whole philosophical understanding. I will suggest that the importance of Patočka’s contribution to Charter 77 goes beyond the original aim of the declaration, pointing to the broader significance of the moral and political crisis in a society reduced to the sphere of instrumental rationality. For Patočka, to think about humans and their existence in the world is irreducible to instrumental rationality.

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Dorota Probucka

, S. D. (1986): Human Character and Morality . New York: Routledge. JOPLING, D. A. (1998): First Do Not Harm: Over Philosophising and Pseudo-Philosophizing in Philosophical Counselling. In: Inquiry , 17(3), pp. 100–112. KANT, I. (1999): Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten . Hamburg: Meiner. LAZARI-PAWŁOWSKA, I. (1992): Etyka [ Ethics ]. Wrocław: Ossolineum MAY, H. E. (1997): Socratic Ignorance and the Therapeutic Aim of the Elenchos. In: Apeiron: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science , 30(4), pp. 37–50. MARGOLIS, J. (1966

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Tibor Máhrik

Abstract

This paper focuses on the dynamics of ethical perspectives that embody the Golden Rule of Morality. Based on critical analysis of this rule in various cultural and religious contexts, but also from the perspective of humanism, the author presents its paradoxical character, the essence of which is interpreted here in terms of a pointer to metaphysical reality. It turns out that social conditionality, as well as the self-referential concept as a starting point of any ethical reasoning, are serious epistemological challenges for the application of the Golden Rule in the position of universal normativity that this study addresses. On the other hand, Judeo-Christian cosmology and the related basis for ethical foundations is presented here as an inspirational space of ethical reasoning in which the paradoxical character of the Golden Rule becomes rather an indicator of a deeper metaethical interpretation of one's own particular ethical attitudes and outcomes than a practical guide to the discovery of ethical universals.

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Jerzy Kosiewicz

. Loland, S. (2002). Fair play in Sport: A Moral Sport System. London & New York: Routledge. Morgan, W. J. (2006). Why sports morally matter. New York and London: Routledge. Morgan, W. J. (2007). Fair is Fair, Or Is It?: A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in American Sport. In A. J. Schneider and Fan Hong (Eds.), Doping in Sport. Global Ethical Issues (pp. 1-22). New York and London: Routledge. Ossowska, M. (1966). Podstawy nauki o moralności /Foundations of the science of morality

Open access

Jerzy Kosiewicz

-22). New York and London: Routledge. Nietzsche, F. (1912). Poza dobrem i złem /Beyond good and evil/. Warszawa - Kraków: Nakład Jakóba Mortkowicza. Ossowska, M. (1966). Podstawy nauki o moralności /Foundations of the science of morality/. Warsaw: PWN. Palm, J. (2004). Sport for All! - Fair Play for All? Academic Supplement of Fair Play! The Official Publication of the European Fair Play Movement, 1, 1-2. Przyłuska-Fiszer, A., Misiuna, B. (1993). Etyczne aspekty sportu /Ethical aspects of sport/ (pp. 7