Sławomir Stankowski, Magdalena Sobolewska, Anna Jaroszewska and Marzena Gibczyńska
(2): 199–203 (in Polish).
Piekarczyk M., 2013. Effect of winter wheat straw ash on the some macro- and microelements available forms content in light soil. Fragmenta Agronomica 30(1): 92–98.
Piekarczyk M., Kobierski M. Kotwica K., 2013. Contents of copper and zinc in sandy soil fertilized by barley, wheat and rape straw ash. Soil Science Annual 64: 93–97 (in Polish).
Rachoń L., Szumiło G., 2009. Comparison of chemical composition of selected winter wheat species. Journal of Elementology 14(1): 135–146.
Regulation of the Minister of the Environment
The usability of various single extractors in the chemical analysis of composts was evaluated using principal component analysis. Ten different single extractors were used to determine the contents of microelements obtained in the chemical extraction of four different composts. It was found that principal component analysis is a satisfactory statistical method enabling the comparison of different solutions in terms of efficiency of extraction of microelements from composts of different composition. The results showed that 1mol dm-3 HCL and 10% HNO3 solutions had the highest extraction strength, and 0.01mol dm-3 CaCl2 and 1mol dm-3 NH4NO3 the lowest.
Tomasz Kleiber, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Katarzyna Przygocka-Cyna and Tomasz Spiżewski
of organic matter mineralisation method on the content of macro- and microelements of rapeseed cake). Acta Agrophys. 2011;18(1):77-85. http://agro.icm.edu.pl/agro/element/bwmeta1.element.agro-53b5f0ea-bbe8-4dc3-b41a-bb1ea51789d6 .
 White PJ, Broadley M.R. Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets - iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytol. 2009;182:49-84. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02738.x.
 Reimann C, Siewers U, Tarvainen T, Bityukova L, Eriksson J, Gilucis A, et al
Agnieszka Parzych, Małgorzata Cymer and Kamila Macheta
Alloway B.J., 1995, Soil processes and the behavior of metals, [in:] Alloway B.J. (ed.), Heavy metals in soils, Blackie, Glasgow 7–28.
Baldantoni D., Alfani A., Di Tommasi P., Bartoli G., Virzo de Santo A., 2004, Assessment of macro and microelement accumulation capability of two aquatic plants, Environ. Pollut. 130: 149–156.
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Element content of food is variable and can be influenced by different factors. The aim of the present study was to discover the linkage between macro- and microelement concentrations in food produced in Latvia, and possible impacts of environmental factors. More than 300 fresh food samples such as eggs, cottage cheese, honey, root vegetables, apple juice, apple wine were collected in the time period from 2009 to 2011. Samples were mineralised or analysed directly by appropriate method of quantitative analysis: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Statistical analysis of data revealed that food elemental content can be influenced by sitespecific factors such as geographical origin, seasonality, environmental pollution.
Magdalena Borowiec, Paulina Polańska and Józef Hoffmann
Biodegradability of the compounds introduced with microelement fertilizers into the environment
The results of laboratory studies into the oxygen biodegradation of chelating substances in aqueous medium under kinetic and static test conditions with added glucose as an additional source of carbon, are presented. It has been found that S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (S,S-EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA) are more readily degradable than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), most commonly used in the production of microelement fertilizers. It has also been found that the presence of additional carbon sources accelerates biodegradation.
The effect of composts from potato pulp and municipal sewage sludge for changes of microelements in the soil during incubation
The total and soluble content of microelements in the soil was described in the laboratory experiment. The soil was incubated with three doses of composts with a participation of municipal sewage sludge and potato pulp. The obtained results of the experiment pointed that all the composts increased an average total content and the forms soluble in 1 M HCl of microelements in the soil in comparison with the control. In the majority of the variants, the composts made with the 70% participation of municipal sewage sludge and 30% addition of straw or sawdust caused an increase of the content of the analyzed elements in the soil than the composts with the 70% participation of potato pulp and 30% addition of straw or sawdust. The differences are connected with a higher content of microelements, which were put in the soil, with the composts with the 70% participation of municipal sewage sludge and 30% addition of straw or sawdust. There are no differences in the formation of the content of microelements in the soil, which were depended on the type of the structural - formative component during the production of composts. The quantity of the composts' dose had an influence on the formation of the participation of the soluble form of microelements in the total content in the soil. The participation of the soluble form of cadmium, cooper, manganese and nickel in the total content in the soil increased along with increasing the dose of composts. The content of the total forms in the soil incubated with the composts included in the standard for the light soils.
Tomasz Knapowski, Wojciech Kozera, Jarosław Chmielewski, Damian Gorczyca, Elżbieta Wszelaczyńska and Jarosław Pobereżny
In Poland, in recent years, there has been a great interest in growing spelt wheat. This is dictated not only by an increasing demand for food with higher healthy properties and unique taste, but also by a possibility of attracting farmers’ attention to this cereal as an alternative crop, with smaller requirements regarding the use of fertilization, as compared with common wheat. The aim of this study was to carry out the assessment of value of some technological characters of grain and flour of spelt wheat depending on different fertilizations with nitrogen (I factor, n=3, 25 and 50 kg N∙ha−1 + control treatment) and foliar application of microelements (II factor, n=4, Mn, Cu, combined fertilization with Mn and Cu + control treatment). Based on the performed study, it was found that fertilization with nitrogen, microelements and their interaction had, on average for years, a significant effect on the values of technological characters. Introduction of 25 kg N·ha−1 caused an increase in the value of falling number, whereas total protein content, wet gluten content and sedimentation value increased as a result of increasing nitrogen rates up to a level of 50 kg·ha−1. Of the variants of fertilization with microelements, the highest values of the analysed baking indices were found in the effects of combined foliar application of copper and manganese.
Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora H.B.K., Verbenaceae family) is indigenous to South America and cultivated as an aromatic plant in various parts of world. Lemon thyme (Thymus citriodorus L.), Lamiaceae family, is a perennial medicinal plant native to southern Europe and is cultivated in the Mediterranean region. These species are cultivated mainly for the lemon-like aroma emitted from their leaves due to the presence of dimethyl-2,6- octadienal, also known as lemonal or citral, which is used in food and perfumery for its citrus effect. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral content and essential oil components of L. citriodora and T. citriodorus plants grown under semi-arid climatic conditions in Turkey. The aerial parts of lemon thyme and lemon verbena plants were extracted using hydrodistillation. The essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the microelement contents of the herbs were examined via inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The microelement contents were 0.249, 1.630, 16.41, 0.106, and 13.1-36.2 mg kg-1 for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), respectively, in lemon thyme, and 0.275, 4.584, 248.1, 15.71, and 1.803 mg kg-1 for Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and zinc (Zn), respectively, in lemon verbena. Fifty compounds were identified in lemon verbena essential oil, including limonene (30.33%), trans-citral (17%), cis-citral (12.77%), caryophyllene oxide (5.71%), and geraniol acetate (4.02%) that together constituted 99.86% of the oil composition. We also identified 22 compounds constituting approximately 85.11% of lemon thyme essential oil, including transgeraniol (30.07%), trans-citral (15.06%), cis-citral (11.71%), cis-geraniol (7.65%), and 3-octanol (6.18%).
Tomasz Kleiber, Andrzej Komosa, Jolanta Krzyszkowska and Krzysztof Moliński
The experiment was carried out in the years 2002-2004. Its aim was the determination of the tendencies in the microelement nutritional status of the standard cultivars of Anthurium cultorum Birdsey (‘Baron’, ‘Choco’, ‘Midori’, ‘Pistache’, ‘President’, ‘Tropical’ from Anthura B.V.) in the autumn-winter and spring-summer vegetation periods. The plants were cultivated in expanded clay using a drop fertigation system with standard nutrition. A significant influence of the vegetation periods and the light conditions associated with them was found to be exerted on the microelement plant nutrition. In the autumn-winter period, characterized by light deficit, the plant age significantly modified the nutrition (increase or decrease of content with a plant’s aging) with regard to zinc (-23.7%), copper (-25.8%) and boron (+25%), while in the spring-summer period, iron (+12.9%) and copper (-21.7%) nutrition was modified. During the three years of the study, the autumnwinter period showed a significant increase of iron content (+9.8%) with a simultaneous decrease of copper content (-6.5%), in comparison with the springsummer period. The awareness of the cyclical nature of the changes in the nutritional status of plants, depending on the given vegetation season, supplies a valuable instrument in the interpretation of plant analyses for diagnostic purposes.