. Bonilla E., Hernández F., Cortés L., Mendoza M., Mejía J., Carrillo E., Casas E., Betancourt M., Effects of the insecticides malathion and diazinon on the early oogenesis in mice in vitro . Environ. Toxicol., 2008, 23, 240–245. 5. Cannon J.M., Reddy V., Murrill E., Characterization of malathion residues in dairy goats and poultry. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996,44,3365–3373. 6. Czerniewicz M., Kielczewska K., Kruk A., Comparison of some physicochemical properties of milk from holstein-friesian and jersey cows. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2006, 15/56, 61
Deus Mushobozy, Gerod Nganilevanu, Sosthenus Ruheza and George Swella
stored beans from bruchid attack. J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 245-256. Shaaya E., Kostjukov J., Eilberge A., Sukprakarn C. 1997. Plant oils as fumigants and contact insecticides for the control of stored - product insects. J. Stored Products Res. 33 (1): 7-15. Storey C. C., Sauer D. B., Ecker O., Quinlan J. K. 1982. Incidence, concentration and effectiveness of malathion residues in wheat and maize (corn) exported from United States. J. Stored Products Res. 18: 147-151. Rahman A., Talukder F
Slavica Vučinić, Milica Zlatković, Biljana Antonijević, Marijana Ćurčić and Bogdan Bošković
. FFP in organophosphate poisoning:what´s the secret ingredient? Clin Toxicol 2005;43:215. doi: 10.1081/ CLT-200053343 11. Zivot U, Castorena JL, Gariott JC. A case of fatal ingestion of malathion. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1993;14:51-3. 12. Farago A. Fatal, suicidal malathion poisonings. Arch Toxicol 1967;23:11-6. doi: 10.1007/BF00577694
M.F. Mahmoud, M.A.M. Osman, M.A.M. El-Hussiny, A.A. Elsebae, S.A. Hassan and M. Said
Proceedings No. 76. Amro, M.A. & Abdel-Galil, F.A. (2008). Infestation predisposition and relative susceptibility of certain edible fruit crops to the native and invading fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the New Valley Oases, Egypt. Ass.Univ.Bull.Environ.Res., 11(1). Braham, M., Pasqualini, E. & Ncira, N. (2007). Efficacy of kaolin, spinosad and malathion against Ceratitis capitate in citrus orchards. Bull. Insectology , 60 (1): 39-47. Burns, E.B., Harris, D.L., Moreno, D.S. & Eger, J.E. (2001). Efficacy of spinosad bait sprays to control
Aly Derbalah and Sahar Ahmed
Oil and Powder of Spearmint as an Alternative to Sitophilus Oryzae Chemical Control of Wheat Grains
Stored product pests such as Sitophilus Oryzae are a major concern. Alternative and safe control methods for such pests are needed. Therefore, powder and essential oil of Mentha viridis plant were tested under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat grains against the insect S. oryzae. The insect was reared and tested on whole wheat grains. The emergence and adult mortality of the insect S. oryzae were tested. The efficacy of these plant products was evaluated and compared with malathion. The standard compound for controlling S. oryzae has been malathion. The effect of botanical products and malathion on the germination of wheat grains was also evaluated. The chemical components of spearmint oil were also identified using GC-MS analysis. The results showed that, the oil and powder of M. viridis were effective against S. oryzae with the respect to adults mortality. Also, the oil and powdered products of M. viridis significantly reduced the emergence of S. oryzae compared to the control treatment. Spearmint oil and powder do not significantly affect wheat grains germination relative to the control treatment. The efficacy of spearmint against the tested insect was due to the presence of a mixture of bioactive compounds. The results suggested that, spearmint oil and powder are promising as alternatives to chemical control used against S. oryzae in wheat grains. Also, these spearmint products submit a solution of resistance development by insect due to the presence of a lot of bioactive components rather than the single insecticide.
H. Hengy and J. Thirion
A method was developed to determine Malathion on tobacco and in smoke condensate at levels of 0.05 ppm and above. A study on the Malathion content of leaf tobacco, cigarette tobacco, and the transfer rate from cigarettes into the mainstream smoke was made. The analysis revealed that the air-cured tobacco contained 0.1 ppm of the pesticide, while the flue-cured samples and cigarettes contained less than 0.05 ppm. The transfer studies indicated that approximately 91-92 % of Malathion is lost during the smoking of cigarettes.
organophosphorus compounds (8 pesticides and 1 defoliant). Mutation Res 1982; 103: 307-313. Wang TC, Lee TC, Lin MF, Lin SY. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges by pesticides in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mutation Res 1987; 188: 311-321. Salvadori DMF, Ribeiro LR, Pereira CAB, Becak W. Cytogenetic effects of malathion insecticide on somatic and germ cells of mice. Mutation Res 1988; 204: 283-287. Lessa JMM, Becak W, Rabello MN, Pereira CAB, Ungaro
El-Sayed Mohammad Soliman Mokbel, Eman Saed Hassan Swelam, Eman Mohamed Mostafa Radwan and Mohammed Abd-Elhady Kandil
). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt 90: 1–13. Laamari M., Khelfa L., Coeur d’Acier A. 2008. Resistance source to cowpea aphid ( Aphis craccivora Koch) in broad bean ( Vicia faba L.) Algerian landrace collection. African Journal of Biotechnology 7 (14): 2486–2490. Lee S.E., Lees M. 2001. Biochemical mechanisms of resistance in strains of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) resistant to malathion and chlorpyrifos-methyl. Journal of Economic Entomology 94 (3): 706–713. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-94.3.706 Mokbel E
Vahid Mahdavi and Moosa Saber
The functional response is a behavioral phenomena defined as the relation between the parasitized host per each parasitoid and host density. This phenomenon can be useful in assessing parasitoid efficiency for the biological control of the host. Parasitoid wasps are most important insects and they play a significant role in the natural control of pests via their parasitism activities. In this study, the effects of diazinon and malathion were evaluated on the functional response of Habrobracon hebetor Say to different densities of last instar larvae of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. Young adult females (< 24 h old) of the parasitoid were exposed to LC30 values of pesticides. Host densities of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 were offered, to treated young females for 24 h in 10 cm Petri dishes. At this point, the parasitism data were recorded. The experiments were conducted in eight replications. The functional response was type Ш in the control and insecticide treatments. Searching efficiency in the control, diazinon and malathion-treated wasps were 0.008±0.002, 0.003±0.002, and 0.004±0.002 h-1, handling times were 1.38±0.1, 7.95±0.91, and 6.4±0.81 h, respectively. Diazinon and malathion had the highest and the lowest effect on searching efficiency of H. hebetor, respectively. After conducting advanced field studies, it was found that malathion may be used as a compatible chemical material with biological control agent in IPM programs.
E. Nesemann and F. Seehofer
A method has been developed that permits the qualitative and quantitative determination of a number of chlorinated and phosphate insecticide compounds on tobacco. Extraction with acetonitrile, partitioning into petroleum ether, cleanup on a Florisil column are followed by gas chromatography and determination with the microcoulometric system (halogen) and the thermionic detector (phosphorus). A procedure is presented for the extraction and determination of the thiophosphates and water-soluble metabolites remaining in the acetonitrile-water layer after petroleum ether partitioning. Carbamate insecticides are extracted with methylene chloride, partitioned into water, separated by thin-layer chromatography, identified and estimated by colourimetry. Recoveries of the compounds (diazinon, parathion, Guthion, malathion, dimethoate) from tobacco fortified just prior to extraction ranged from 74 to 104 %; DDVP, Dipterex, Metasystox R 50 to 78 %, aldrin, DDT, lindane, thiodan 88 to 101 %, carbaryl, Unden 75 to 82 %, at levels of 0.5 ppm. The results for the field application of these 14 different insecticides on tobacco are presented. They show that there are nil or negligible residues from 8 organophosphorus and 1 carbamate insecticides (Unden); carbaryl and thiodan are well below the legal tolerances. Only the treatment of tobacco with lindane, DDT and aldrin (soil treatment) results in residues above the limit set