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Jitender Madan, Dinesh Kaushik, Satish Sardana, Dina Mishra, Shalinder Singh and Binod Singh

Effect of ampicillin and chloroquine on humoral immune response elicited by bovine albumin encapsulated in liposomes

Immune suppression resulting from chemoprophylaxis and potential drug interaction were investigated in experimental animals pre-medicated with ampicillin and chloroquine followed by immunization with bovine serum albumin bearing liposomes prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method. The prepared liposomes were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Humoral immune response was measured in terms of systemic IgG antibody titre by the ELISA method. The present study showed that 7:3 molar ratio of soya phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol produced liposomes of mean diameter of 235.4 ± 10.3 nm and entrapment efficiency of 41.3 ± 3.2%. Ampicillin significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the antibody titre whereas chloroquine did not reduce the antibody titre significantly. The study will help in programming a new drug management and in characterization of vaccine-drug interaction.

Open access

Karthik Arumugam, Ganesa Subramanian, Surulivel Mallayasamy, Ranjith Averineni, Meka Reddy and Nayanabhirama Udupa

A study of rivastigmine liposomes for delivery into the brain through intranasal route

The present study is mainly aimed at delivering a drug into the brain via the intranasal route using a liposomal formulation. For this purpose, rivastigmine, which is used in the management of Alzheimer's disease, was selected as a model drug. Conventional liposomes were formulated by the lipid layer hydration method using cholesterol and soya lecithin as lipid components. The concentration of rivastigmine in brain and plasma after intranasal liposomes, free drug and per oral administration was studied in rat models. A significantly higher level of drug was found in the brain with intranasal liposomes of rivastigmine compared to the intranasal free drug and the oral route. Intranasal liposomes had a longer half-life in the brain than intranasally or orally administered free drug. Delivering rivastigmine liposomes through the intranasal route for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease might be a new approach to the management of this condition.

Open access

Fatemeh Atyabi, Anahita Farkhondehfai, Farnaz Esmaeili and Rassoul Dinarvand

Preparation of pegylated nano-liposomal formulation containing SN-38: In vitro characterization and in vivo biodistribution in mice

7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), a metabolite of irinotecan x HCl, is poorly soluble in aqueous solutions and practically insoluble in most physiologically compatible and pharmaceutically acceptable solvents. Formulation of SN-38 in concentrated pharmaceutical delivery systems for parenteral administration is thus very difficult. Due to their biocompatibility and low toxicity, liposomes were considered for the delivery of SN-38. In this study, pegylated liposomes with distearoylphosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine containing SN-38 were prepared and their characteristics, such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and biodistribution, were investigated. The particle size of liposomes was in the range of 150--200 nm. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release rate of pegylated liposomes was higher than those of non-pegylated liposomes. As expected, the distribution of pegylated liposomes in body organs such as liver, kidney, spleen and lung was considerably lower than that of non-pegylated liposomes. Also, their blood concentration was at least 50 % higher than that of non-pegylated liposomes.