Based on the operational measurement, of which content was to determine ladle thermal profile, there were analysed causes of possible damage of lining in steel ladles by steel breakout through the ladle shell. There exists connection between thermal state of ladle lining during the operation and its lifetime. There were reached to the conclusion that the cause of failure in the lining of ladle is except for high temperature of bath, also wide interval of temperature change during the tap operation, in consequence with possible insufficient pre-heating of ladle, discontinuous operation of aggregate and damage of insulating lining layer, respectively deformation of ladles shell.
J. Vlček, D. Jančar, J. Burda, M. Klárová, M. Velička and P. Machovčák
The influence of a p-type Si with different resistivity, charge carrier lifetime and emitter dopant impurities concentration on the crystalline silicon solar cells parameters were analyzed and experimentally checked. The findings were determined by quasi-steady-state photoconductance, current-voltage and spectral response methods. The study was accompanied by solar device simulation using a numerical PC1D program. The highest photoconversion efficiency of 15.13 % was obtained for the moncrystalline (Cz-Si) solar cell with a base resistivity of 1.8 Ωcm and an effective charge carrier lifetime of 22.9 μs. The results clearly confirmed the importance concerning the dopant level in a Si base material in relation to open circuit voltage and short circuit current possible to obtain from the solar cell. Reduction of a base material resistivtiy leads to a lower value of an effective charge carrier lifetime and photoconversion efficiency both for Cz-Si and multicrystalline (mc-Si) solar cells. The experimental results and calculation showed, that in the case of a solar cell produced on the basis of crystalline silicon, the most important spectral range for an efficiency of a cell is covering a wavelength range of 587 ÷ 838 nm.
Seong Ho Son, Sung Cheol Park and Man Seung Lee
In order to enhance the long-term stability of DSA for copper electroplating process, in the present study, noble metal oxides with excellent electrochemical properties was used and optimum condition was determined the ratio of noble metal oxides, surface pre-treatment of titanium substrate and heat treatment. The effect of the surface pretreatment of titanium substrate and ratio of noble metal oxides were estimated by accelerated test at the highly current density conditions. The lifetime of DSA increase six-fold higher as the oxide thickness of Ta 7 : Ir 3 composition ratio. Under the optimal condition, surface pretreatment led to dramatic increase in the lifetime of DSA.
D. Dulińska, W. Pawlak and Z. Grzesik
The influence of the chromium layer with the thickness of 1 micrometer sputter-deposited on the X33CrNiMn23-8 and X50CrMnNiNbN21-9 steel surfaces on the oxidation behavior of these steels has been studied at 1173 K in air, using the microthermogravimetric technique. It has been found that coated materials show very good oxidation resistance under isothermal conditions, comparable with that of chromia formers, due to the formation of Cr2O3 scales on their surfaces. It has been also demonstrated that the positive effect of chromium addition on the oxidation resistance of investigated steels is observed during a much longer period of time than the life-time of the chromium coating.
A. Molnar, M. Benke and Z. Gacsi
In this manuscript, correlations were searched for between pin misalignments relative to PCB bores and crack propagation after cyclic thermal shock tests in THT solder joints produced from lead-free solder alloys. In total, 7 compositions were examined including SAC solders with varying Ag, Cu and Ni contents. The crack propagation was initiated by cyclic thermal shock tests with 40°C / +125°C temperature profiles. Pin misalignments relative to the bores were characterized with three attributes obtained from one section of the examined solder joints. Cracks typically originated at the solder/pin or solder/bore interfaces and propagated within the solder. It was shown that pin misalignments did not have an effect on crack propagation, thus, the solder joints’ lifetime.
B. Białobrzeska and W. Dudziński
Today low-alloy steels with boron achieve high resistance to abrasive wear and high strength. These features are obtained by using advanced technology of manufacturing. This makes boron steels increasingly popular and their application more diverse. Application of these steels can extend the lifetime of very expensive machine construction in many industries such as mining, the automotive, and agriculture industries. An interesting subgroup of these materials is steel with boron intended for heat treatment. These steels are supplied by the manufacturer after cold or hot rolling so that it is possible for them to be heat treated in a suitable manner by the purchaser for its specific application. Very important factor that determines the mechanical properties of final product is austenite grain growth occurring during hot working process such us quenching or hot rolling. Investigation of the effect of heating temperature and holding time on the austenite grain size is necessary to understand the growth behavior under different conditions. This article presents the result of investigation of austenite grain growth in selected low-allow boron steel with high resistance to abrasive wear and attempts to describe the influence of chemical composition on this process.
M. Łępicka, M. Grądzka-Dahlke and I. Szarmach
Processes of destruction of products used in orthodontic treatment, e.g. fixed orthodontic appliances, microimplants or dental prostheses considerably limit its operational lifetime and comfort and safety of patients. The objective of the research was to evaluate and assess corrosion damage to silver-soldered stainless steel rapid palatal expansion Hyrax devices. Used in vivo for 2 or 6 months, respectively, RPE (rapid palatal expansion) devices were analyzed macroscopically and in a scanning electron microscope with an energy X-ray analyzer for signs of corrosion. The evaluated appliances showed discernible differences between the overall condition of the noble solders and the stainless steel elements. The Ag-rich solders were chiefly covered in corrosion pits, whereas stainless steel wires, molar bands and Hyrax screws presented corrosion-free surfaces. What is more, the EDS analysis showed differential element composition of the solders. According to the results, noble materials, such as Ag-rich solders, can corrode in a salivary environment when coupled with stainless steel. The selective leaching processes are observed.
A. Fornalczyk, S. Golak, R. Przyłucki and J. Willner
The lifetime of a catalytic converters is limited. Today’s environmental regulations require that used converters should be properly recycled as a valuable source of precious metals, Al2O3 and steel scrap. The precious metals used in the devices perform catalytic functions. They are suspended in a ceramic or metal carrier. This paper deals with the recovery of precious metals from automotive converters using a metal-collector method. In order to speed up the washout of the precious metals from the capillary structure of the converter, the movement of the liquid metal-collector was forced by the electromagnetic field. The research was aimed at improving the effective velocity of the liquid metal flow through the carrier by means of a device with a double windings. Various ways of power supply were considered. The calculation experiment was performed as a weakly coupled analysis of the electromagnetic field and flow field.
Failure mode of resistance spot welds (interfacial vs. pullout) is a qualitative measure of resistance spot weld performance. Considering adverse effect of interfacial failure mode on the vehicle crashworthiness, process parameters should be adjusted so that the pullout failure mode is guaranteed ensuring reliability of spot welds during vehicle lifetime. In this paper, metallurgical and mechanical properties of HSLA 420 resistance spot welds are studied with particular attention to the failure mode. Results showed that the conventional weld size recommendation of 4t0:5 (t is sheet thickness) is not sufficient to guarantee pullout failure mode for HSLA steel spot welds during the tensile-shear test. Considering the failure mechanism of spot welds during the tensileshear test, minimum required fusion zone size to ensure the pullout failure mode was estimated using an analytical model. Fusion zone size proved to be the most important controlling factor for peak load and energy absorption of HSLA 420 resistance spot weld.
S. Pietrzyk, P. Palimaka and W. Gębarowski
During different aluminum smelting processes occur direct contact of liquid metal and carbon materials, which are the main constituent for the lining of the cells, furnaces, crucibles and ladles, etc. As a result, processes of aluminium carbide formation at the interfacial area and its subsequent dissolution occurs. Those are recognized as one of the most important mechanisms causing surface wear and decrease lifetime of the equipment, especially in aluminium electrolysis. Present work is aimed at deeper study of the initial steps of Al4C3 formation at the aluminium/ carbon interface. Three types of carbonaceous materials: amorphous, semigraphitic and graphitized, in the presence and absence of cryolite melts, were examined. As it is very difficult to study layer of Al4C3 in situ, two indirect experimental techniques were used to investigate aluminium carbide formation: measurements of the potential and the electrical resistance. It was concluded that the process of early formation of aluminium carbide depends on many processes associated with the presence of electrolyte (intercalation, penetration and dissolution) as well as the structure of carbon materials - especially the presence of the disordered phase.