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Simona Ifrim, Cornelia Amalinei, Elena Cojocaru and Mioara Calipsoana Matei

. The HDL hypothesis: does highdensity lipoprotein protect from atherosclerosis? J Lipid Res. 2010 Aug;51(8):2058-73. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.R001610 4. Zhao Y, Dai XY, Zhou Z, Zhao GX, Wang X, Xu MJ. Leucine supplementation via drinking water reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE null mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2016 Feb;37(2):196-203. DOI: 10.1038/aps.2015.88 5. Badimon L, Vilahur G. LDL-cholesterol versus HDL-cholesterol in the atherosclerotic plaque: inflammatory resolution versus thrombotic chaos. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 Apr;1254

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Carlos Eduardo C. Martins, Vanessa B. de Sousa Lima, Henrique Quintas T. Ribeiro and Julio Tirapegui

with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86, 1527–1533, 2005. Costa RR, Lima AC, Tagliari M, Martins KLF. Effects of resistance training on the lipid profile in obese women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 51, 169–177, 2011. D’Souza DM, Al-Sajee D, Hawke TJ. Diabetic myopathy: impact of diabetes mellitus on skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Front Physiol 20, 379, 2013. Donato JJr, Pedrosa RG, Cruzat VF, Pires IS, Tirapegui J. Effects of leucine supplementation on the body composition and protein status of rats submitted to food restriction

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M.R. Jagadeesh, H .M. Suresh Kumar and R. Ananda Kumari


A new semi-organic non linear optical crystal, L-leucine phthalic acid potassium iodide (LLPPI) has been grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were subjected to different characterizations, such as single crystal XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TGA, SEM, EDAX, micro hardness, dielectric and powder SHG. Single crystal structure was determined from X-ray diffraction data and it revealed that the crystal belongs to triclinic system with the space group P1. The vibrational frequencies of various functional groups were derived from FT-IR spectrum. Thermal stability of the grown crystal was investigated by TG-DTA studies and it was observed that the crystal was thermally stable up to 192 °C. Optical absorption study was carried out and a good transparency in the entire visible region was observed at the lower cutoff wavelength of 227 nm. Dielectric study was performed as a function of frequency and normal dielectric behavior was observed. The micro hardness test was carried out and the load dependent hardness was measured. Kurtz powder method was employed to explore the NLO characteristics of the grown crystal.

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Kaitheri Edathil Rachana, Sudalaimuthu Asari Naganeeswaran, Thayale Purayil Fayas, Regi Jacob Thomas and Muliyar Krishna Rajesh

Biology 292, 195-202. Jones, D. A., Jones, J. D. G., 1996: The role of leucine-rich repeat proteins in plant defences. Advances in Plant Pathology 24, 89-167. Jones, D. A., Thomas, C. M., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., Balint- Kurti, P. J., Jones, J. D. G., 1994: Isolation of the tomato Cf-9 gene for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum by transposon tagging. Science 266, 789-793. Kanazin, V., Marek, L. F., Shoemaker, R. C., 1996: Resistance gene analogs are conserved and clustered in soybean. Proceedings of the National Academy of

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Jana Kazandjieva, Dimitrina Guleva, Assia Nikolova and Sonya Márina

branched-chain amino/keto acid metabolic defects. J Inherit Metab Dis 2012;35(1):29-40. 4. Yudkoff M, Daikhin Y, Nissim I, Horyn O, Luhovyy B, Lazarow A, et al. Brain amino acid requirements and toxicity: the example of leucine. J Nutr 2005;135(6 Suppl):1531S-8S. 5. Strauss KA, Wardley B, Robinson D, Hendrickson C, Rider NL, Puffenberger EG, et al. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design. Mol Genet Metab 2010;99(4):333–45. 6. Mescka CP, Guerreiro G, Hammerschmidt T, Faverzani J, de Moura

Open access

Alfrēds Jānis Sīpols

localization in rodents. J. Clin. Invest., 119, 2277-2589. Blouet, C., Jo, Y., Li, X., Schwartz, G.J. (2009). Mediobasal hypothalamic leucine sensing regulates food intake through activation of a hypothala­mus-brainstem circuit. J. Neurosci., 29, 8302-8311. Blouet, C., Schwartz, G.J. (2010). Hypothalamic nutrient sensing in the con­trol of energy homeostasis. Behav. Brain Res., 209, 1-12. Chen, H., Simar, D., Lambert, K., Mercier, J., Morris, M.J. (2008). Maternal and postnatal overnutrition differentially impact appetite

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Marcin Gołyński, Maria Szpetnar, Marcin R. Tatara, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Magdalena Gołyńska, Łukasz Kurek, Marcin Szczepanik and Piotr Wilkołek

protein synthesis by individual branched-chain amino acids in neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006, 290, 612-621. 8. Gannon N.P., Vaughan R.A.: Leucine-induced anaboliccatabolism: two sides of the same coin. Amino Acids 2015, doi 10.1007/s00726-015-2109-8. 9. Griffiths R.D.: The evidence for glutamine use in the criticallyill. Proc Nutr Soc 2001, 60, 403-410. 10. Guo K., Yu Y.H., Hou J., Zhang Y.: Chronic leucine supplementation improves glycemic control in etiologically distinct mouse models of obesity and

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Artur Jóźwik, Ewa Polawska, Nina Strzałkowska, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Małgorzata Łysek-Gładysińska, Agnieszka Kamińska and Monika Michalczuk

cellular fractions of the mouse liver and kidney. Med Weter 2002, 58, 281-284. 29. Turek J.J., Schoenlein I.A., Bottoms G.D.: The effect of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on tumor necrosis factor-α production and leucine aminopeptidase levels in rat peritoneal macrophages. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1991, 43, 141-149. 30. Witek B., Ochwanowska E., Wrobel A., Kołątaj A.: Effect of morphine on activity of five selected lysosomal enzymes in liver and kidneys of mice. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2011, 29, 151-159.

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Yong Zhang, Shougong Zhang, Liwang Qi, Tao Zhang, Chunguo Wang, Chengbin Chen and Wenqin Song

References ALTSCHUL, S. F., T. L. MADDEN, A. A. SCHAFFER, J. ZHANG, Z. ZHANG, W. MILLER and D. J. LIPMAN (1997): Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25(17): 3389-402. AMELINE-TORREGROSA, C., B. B. WANG, M. S. O’BLENESS, S. DESHPANDE, H. ZHU, B. ROE, N. D. YOUNG and S. B.CANNON (2008): Identification and characterization of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat genes in the model plant Medicago truncatula. Plant Physiol 146(1): 5-21. ASHFIELD

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Q.Y. Yang, T. Chen, Y.B. Chen and D.L. Lan

MHC class I genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107: 13794-13799. Meissner TB, Li A, Kobayashi KS ( 2012 ) NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA). Microbes Infect 14: 477-484. Motyan JA, Bagossi P, Benko S, Tozser J ( 2013 ) A molecular model of the full-length human NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5) protein. BMC Bioinformatics 14: 275. Neerincx A, Lautz K, Menning M, Kremmer E, Zigrino P, Hosel M, Buning H, Schwarzenbacher R, Kufer TA ( 2010 ) A role for the human nucleotide-binding domain, leucine