A. P. Pedersen, J. K. Hansen, J. M. Mtika and T. H. Msangi
This study examines the growth and stem straightness variation between teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) provenances in a 30-year-old field trial in the coastal lowland of Tanzania. The results are compared with earlier results. The findings demonstrate that it is possible to find large height and yield differences between teak provenances. The best performing provenance grows some 10% (height) to 40% (volume) better than the average. The provenance Topslip, India, consistently proved to be outstanding in terms of growth and stem quality confirming earlier evaluations at age 5 and 17 years. Tanzanian land races also proved to be superior, especially as regards stem straightness.
B. Nagarajan, A. Nicodemus, V. Sivakumar, A. K. Mandal, G. Kumaravelu, R. S. C. Jayaraj, V. Narmatha Bai and R. Kamalakannan
Studies on phenology, floral biology and seed production were conducted in two provenance trials and a clonal hedge orchard of C. equisetifolia. Observations in seventeen populations indicate that predominant dioecy with low proportion of monoecy as the commonest sexual strategy. Flowering occurs twice in a year coinciding with the South West and North East monsoons. C. equisetifolia exhibits strong anemophilous adaptations such as very high pollen output, reduced flowers with large stigmatic area and light weighing winged fruits. Pollen is viable up to 99%, storable in 4°C up to three months with no loss in fertility. Trees start reproducing within two years of planting. Local land races produce ten to twenty times higher seeds than the recent introduced natural provenances and exotic landraces. Controlled pollination resulted in lower seed set than observed in open pollination. Selfing leads to normal seed set in monoecious trees. Inter specific cross with C. junguhuhniana pollen parent results in viable progeny.
Viive Rosenberg, Jaanika Edesi, Ketlin Liiv and Katrin Kotkas
At EVIKA, we have been preserving potato varieties, breeding lines and land-races in vitro as meristem plants for more than 30 years. Various experiments have been conducted to determine the effects of medium components, growth conditions and other factors on regeneration and the sub-culturing interval of in vitro plants. Based on these experiments, the optimal preservation medium and long-term preservation conditions in vitro for many varieties have been developed. Every 3.0-3.5 months, the potato plants regenerated from meristems are transferred onto growth-regulator-free propagation medium. At present, there are 454 potato varieties, breeding materials, land-races and 1026 meristem clones in our gene bank. The interest in varieties as genetic resources and in those with coloured flesh tubers is increasing. In EVIKA’s test field we have been testing meristem clones of variety ‘Blue Congo’. We have demonstrated the use of that variety for making salads; baked, boiled, mashed potato and even for French fries. In addition, the use of the genetic resources was started in a farm, where. 2000 kg seed tubers were produced from 4580 meristem plants of variety ‘Väike verev’ in 2012. The main interests are: dark yellow flesh, content of antioxidants and use as a source for functional diet.
Beat Knechtle, Caio Victor de Sousa, Herbert Gustavo Simões, Thomas Rosemann and Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis
swimming, 1800 km of cycling and 422 km of running ( Knechtle et al., 2011 ; Lepers et al., 2011 ). An athlete who competes in a race of such a length should know the significance of each discipline (swimming, cycling or running) in order to best strategize his/her pacing.
In endurance and ultra-endurance races, pacing is crucial for a successful finish ( Abbiss and Laursen, 2008 ; Foster et al., 1993 , 2005 ). Pacing can be defined as the strategy by which effort is managed throughout an exercise session in relation to a specific goal and with the knowledge of the
Tahany Noreldin, Samiha Ouda, Oussama Mounzer and Magdi T. Abdelhamid
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Samiha A. Ouda, Tahany Noreldin, Oussama H. Mounzer and Magdi T. Abdelhamid
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