Environmental pollution in cities is an increasingly popular issue tackled in research. One of the elements with a significant impact on the state of urban ecosystems is transport with its pressure on individual components of the environment. Sustainable urban transport is gaining prominence as a postulate expressed in cities’ strategic documents, constituting an element alleviating the negative effects of anthropopressure. In the light of the need to introduce innovative solutions for clean forms of transport, numerous papers indicate the bicycle as an answer to some of those problems. The article presents a review of literature referring to the socio-economic aspects of using the bicycle in cities as a means of transport for daily commuting. The analysis is based on publications on cyclist safety in road traffic, the perception of the bicycle as a means of transport in cities, and the introduction of innovative solutions, such as bicycle-sharing systems.
Rhododendron honey is a monofloral honey and it is collected from the flowers of Rhododendron species widely spreading over many countries, mainly in America, Turkey, Indonesia, Australia. It is belived that Rhododendron honey treats several disorders and is used traditionally as an alternative medicine. The determination of the chemical characteristics of the Rhododendron honey is essential for public health. In this research, the physicochemical characteristics of Rhododendron, chestnut and flower honey samples collected from beekeepers in Turkey were determined and compared. Physico-chemical parameters such as moisture, acidity, sucrose, invert sugar, fructose/glucose, conductivity, diastase and hydroxymethylfurfural were analysed in each honey sample. According to the results obtained, no differences were found in physico-chemical properties of Rhododendron, honey samples, except from moisture and acidity compared with those of chestnut and flower honeys. In order to differentiate Rhododendron honeys, new methods should be developed. This honey should be reintroduced to medicine and used in pharmaceutical industry
Slobodan Arsovski, Michał Kwiatkowski, Aleksandra Lewandowska, Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska, Emilija Sofeska and Mirek Dymitrow
The condition of the environment is one of the most fundamental concerns of cities worldwide, especially when high levels of pollution and environmental destruction exert immense impact on people’s quality of life. This paper focuses on Skopje, the capital of Macedonia, which often tops the charts as the world’s most polluted city. Despite associated problems such as congestion, ill health, and premature death, Macedonia’s scarce resources are instead spent on controversial projects, such as ‘Skopje 2014’, involving creating a national identity through massive and extremely costly constructions of neo-classical government buildings, museums and monuments. The aim of this paper is to compare the situation of Skopje to environmentally oriented activities conducted in several Polish cities and to discuss the possibility of their implementation in Skopje. Considering the scale and scope of Skopje’s environmental problems, the paper offers some priorities for action, including solutions that emphasize institution building, technical input and self-governance. It also highlights a number of economic, ecological, and socio-cultural contradictions involved in the process of achieving sustainable development.
Choon Sea Yeat, Marta Szydlik and Aleksandra J. Łukaszewska
Alstroemeria is one of the most popular cut flowers in Europe, due to its postharvest longevity and a wide colour palette. However, premature leaf yellowing reduces the ornamental value of the flowering stems even before opening of the secondary florets in cymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of sucrose, gibberellin and 8-hydroxychinoline citrate as postharvest treatments of cut Alstroemeria ‘Dancing Queen’.
Several “flower models” were used to distinguish the effects of the chemicals on senescence of flowers and leaves in the above cultivar. Flowering stems were harvested in November 2011 and March 2012 and the response to treatments for both dates differed: while the longevity of primary and secondary florets was prolonged by the standard preservative (8-HQC+S) in the autumn, there was no difference for the spring collection date. For the March harvest, the secondary flower buds opened faster than for the November harvest, where bud opening was generally hastened by 8-HQC+S. Also, the flower model affected floret longevity and changed the response to the treatments: florets on defoliated flowering stems responded better to the preservative than those on stems with leaves. Florets from different flower models differed in diameter: those from complete stems were usually larger than those from isolated cymes. The secondary florets were much smaller than the primary florets, especially in isolated cymes. Both, GA3 and the standard preservative significantly increased the second floret diameter in all models; however, there were no additive effects of the treatments. GA3 significantly postponed leaf yellowing in all floral models while the sugar-containing preservative had little effect. Generally, the flower model had significant effect on leaf longevity.
F. Ahsan, A. Islam, M. Rasul, M. Mian and M. Hossain
Preliminary Studies on Heterosis in Snakegourd (Triconsanthes cucumerina)
The analysis of variance showed significant difference among the parents and hybrids of snakegourd for most of the characters except days to first female flower, days to first fruit setting and node number of first fruit setting. The hybrid SG-18 x SG-01 produced the highest number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant followed by SG-04 x SG-26. The hybrid SG-04 x SG-26 took minimum 81-83 days to produce female flower. Both positive and negative mid parent and better parent heterosis was obtained for different characters of hybrids of which few hybrids showed desirable and significant values. The highest mid parent heterosis in negative direction (-9.66%) was found for days to first male flower in hybrid SG-06 x SG-18 and for days to first female flower opening in hybrid SG-04 x SG-26 (-9.30%). The hybrids SG-01 x SG-18, SG-04 x SG-26, SG-06 x SG-18, SG-06 x SG-25, SG-18 x SG-01 and SG-18 x SG-25 showed significant desirable mid parent heterosis for number of fruits per plant, and SG-04 x SG-26, SG-06 x SG-18, SG-06 x SG-25, and SG-18 x SG-25 showed better parent heterosis. Four hybrids (SG-04 x SG-26, SG-06 x SG-18, SG-06 x SG-25 and SG-18 x SG-25) exhibited significant and desirable level of both mid and better parent heterosis for number of fruits per plant. The hybrids SG-04 x SG-26, SG-06 x SG-18, SG-06 x SG-25 and SG-18 x SG-25 could be identified as promising combination for commercial cultivation. Further investigation should be carried out to confirm the heterosis exhibited by the hybrids.
Józef Uroda (1901-1956), today entirely forgotten, was an organist at the Transfiguration church in Buczkowice near Szczyrk from 1925 to 1942. At that time he was a significant figure in the cultural and artistic life of his village. He was engaged in many kinds of activities: he conducted the parish choir, collected and noted down religious songs, composed musical pieces, wrote poetry, theatrical plays, and translated from foreign languages. An ardent lover of literature and theater, he set up a theater group, which embraced young and older people, with whom he staged some plays (Mazepa by Juliusz Słowacki, Zemsta [The Revenge] by Aleksander Fredro, Chata za wsi [The Cottage behind the Village] by Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, or Zemsta Cygana [Gypsy’s Revenge] by Seweryn Goszczyski). He was also active in his community, taking part in the local cultural and educational undertakings. He cooperated with OMTUR [Youth Organization of the Workers’ University Association]), sat on the Board of the Buczkowice section of the People’s School Society, and he was a member of the Polish Gymnastics Association “Sokół” [Falcon]. During the German Nazi occupation he was imprisoned in the concentration camp Polenlager 92 in Kietrz for two years. He died in Buczkowice in 1956.
In the musical collections left by J. Uroda, there is his manuscript collection of Marian songs of 1936, titled Ave Maria! Najwikszy zbiór pieśni religijnych do N. Maryi Panny [Ave Maria. The Largest collection of religious songs to Virgin Mary]. This is a large song collection containing as many as 343 Marian songs. It should be added that the collection was not completed, it had been planned to contain 420 songs. The Marian repertory collected by Uroda is impressive because of its vastness and diversity. The songs are intended for the Feasts of Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Our Lady of Loreto, Espousal of Virgin Mary, Our Lady of Lourdes, Purification of Virgin Mary, the Annunciation, Virgin Mary of Perpetual Help, Virgin Mary Assisting the Faithful, Virgin Mary the Gracious, Visitation by Virgin Mary, Virgin Mary Refuge of the Sinners, Our Lady of the Scapular, Our Lady of the Angels, Our Lady of Snows, the Assumption, Our Lady of Czstochowa, Our Lady of Consolation, Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of La Salette, Our Lady of the Rosary, Our Lady the Merciful, and the Feast of Oblation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Many songs are written for Marian months - May and October. A large set of songs consists of pilgrim songs, sometimes associated with a specific sanctuary or place (“To Our Lady of Gidle near Czstochowa”, “On Virgin Mary in the Floriaska Gate in Krakow”, ”To Our Lady at Piasek in Krakow”, “To Our Lady of Piekary”). Uroda chose this repertory mainly from published songbooks and collections containing organ accompaniments to songs - mostly from the collections of Ryszard Gillar and Tomasz Flasza, moreover, from those of Rev. Michał Marcin Mioduszewski, Rev. Franciszek Walczyski, Rev. Jan Siedlecki, Rev. Józef Surzyski, Teofil Klonowski, and Rev. Emilian Schindler.
From the cognitive point of view it is most important that Józef Uroda’s Marian collection contains over twenty previously unknown songs, which enrich the Polish Marian repertory and shed additional light on it, especially with regard to Poland’s southern regions. These are both previously unknown melodies and song texts and Polish contrafacta of German songs. Among these unidentified and previously unknown items there are six songs authored by Józef Uroda: his three compositions - Do Marii pospieszajmy [Let us hurry to Virgin Mary] Dzwoneczku nasz miły [Our lovely bell] and Tam, gdzie cudowny [Where the miraculous… ]); and his three contrafacta of German songs - Jak wiosny kwiat [Like a spring flower] (for an unidentifi ed German tune), Mario! maja Królowo [Mary, the Queen of May] (for the song melody of Maria, Maienkönigin) and Żródło łaski, witaj nam [Be greeted, the Source of Grace] (for the song melody of Gnadenquelle, sei gegrüsst).
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