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John V. Fesko

Apprehensi Iustitiam Gratis Imputatam . Geneva: Oannes le Preux. Boersma H (2004) A Hot Pepper Corn. Richard Baxter’s Doctrine of Justification in Its Seventeenth-Century Context of Controversy . Vancouver: Regent College Publishing. Brown of Wamphray J (1695) The Life of Justification Opened . Utrecht. Calvin J (1559) Institutio Christianae Religionis . Geneva: Robert Stephanus. Calvin J (1960) Institutes of the Christian Religion . Battles F (trans). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Calvin J (2009) Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent

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Krzysztof Szymanek

Abstract

In her paper “Argumentation theory and the conception of epistemic justification”, Lilian Bermejo-Luque presents a critique of deductivism in argumentation theory, as well as her own concept of epistemic justification inspired by the views of Stephen Toulmin. Reading this paper induced me to reflect on the mutual relation between the notions of justification and argumentation. In this work I would like to first draw the reader’s attention to a few issues which seem debatable to me, or which I find worth presenting from a slightly different point of view than that of Lilian Bermejo-Luque. I agree that deductivism is not suitable for a general theory of evaluation of arguments although the critique of deductivism presented by the Author appears as not fully adequate to me. Then I proceed to presenting my doubts about the “conception of justification as a proper outcome of good argumentation” presented in the work. I need to emphasise that due to a broad range of topics addressed by me in this short paper, the description of some of them will be neither fully precise nor exhaustive.

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Miodrag Čoprka

Rezime

Efekti investicija se, u zavisnosti od njihove vrste i veličine, različito mogu manifestovati na privredu, zbog čega je potrebno sagledati različite aspekte njihovog vrednovanja. Polazeći od toga da tržište ne može uvijek i pod svim okolnostima pravilno vrednovati sve robe i usluge s gledišta društva, opravdanost s komercijalnog gledišta se može u mnogome razlikovati od opravdanosti s gledišta društva. Osnovno polazište pri tome predstavlja primjena obračunskih umjesto tržišnih cijena, odnosno sagledavanje oportunitetnih koristi i troškova investicionih projekata, budući da su sastavni dio investicije a ne primjenjuju se u najboljoj alternativnoj upotrebi. Polazeći od nedostataka klasičnih finansijskih analiza u identifikaciji i vrednovanju efekata investicionih projekata sa društvenog aspekta, potrebno je afirmisati pristupe koji se u svijetu sve više razvijaju i dobijaju na značaju.

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Dongsun Cho

Spiritu et littera liber unus, XLIV (Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina). Paris. Augustinus (1887) De Fide et Operibus liber unus, XL (Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina). Paris. Augustinus (1956) Enarrationes in psalmos I-L. (Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina) Turnhout: Brepols. Beeke, JR and Jones, M (2012) A Puritan Theology: Doctrine for Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Reformation Heritage Books. Buchanan, J (1867) The Doctrine of Justification: An Outline of Its History in the Church

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Randall J. Pederson

. Studies in Honor of Richard A. Muller on the Maturation of a Theological Tradition . Leiden: Brill. Baxter R (1655) Aphorismes of Justification . London. Baxter R (1696) Reliquiae Baxterianae . London. Baxter R (1830) The Practical Works of the Rev Richard Baxter . London: James Duncan. Boersma H (1993) A Hot Peppercorn. Richard Baxter’s Doctrine of Justification in Its Seventeenth-Century Context of Controversy . Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum. Burgess G et al (2007) English Radicalism, 1550-1850 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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Virve Marionneau

REFERENCES Bégin, C. (2001). Pour une politique des jeux [For a policy on games]. Paris: L’Harmattan. Boltanski, L. & Thévenot, L. (2006 [1991]). On justification: Economies of worth . Princeton: University Press. Chambers, K. (2011). Gambling for profit: Lotteries, gaming machines, and casinos in cross-national focus . Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Cisneros Örnberg, J. & Tammi, T. (2011). Gambling problems as a political framing – Safeguarding the monopolies in Finland and Sweden. Journal of Gambling Issues, 26 , 110

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Yelena V. Kirillova and Yekaterina S. Meleshenko

-58). Odessa: CUPRIENCO. 7. Kirillova, Ye.V. (2006). The justification of optimal quantity of cargoes in the vessel loading, Methods and Tools for Management of Development of Transport Systems, 11, 142-153. 8. Kirillova, Ye.V., Meleshenko, Ye.S. (2013a). The analytical method of justification of critical cargo-and-passenger ferry loading. In: The collection of scientific papers SWorld; The modern directions of theoretical and applied researches, Odessa, Ukraine, March 19-30, 2013 (pp. 64-67). Odessa: CUPRIENCO. 9. Kirillova

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Philipp Berghofer

Abstract

Can phenomenologists allow for the existence of unobservable entities such as atoms, electrons, and quarks? Can we justifiably believe in the existence of entities that are in principle unobservable? This paper addresses the relationship between Husserlian transcendental phenomenology and scientific realism. More precisely, the focus is on the question of whether there are basic epistemological principles phenomenologists are committed to that have anti-realist consequences with respect to unobservable entities. This question is relevant since Husserl’s basic epistemological principles, such as the “principle of all principles,” seem to suggest that epistemic justification is limited to what can be originally given in the sense that if an object cannot be given in an originary presentive intuition, then one cannot be justified in believing that this object exists. It is the main aim of this paper to show (i) that interpretative reasons exist for not reading Husserl in such a way and (ii) that systematic reasons exist as to why phenomenologists should not subscribe to this criterion. I shall put forward a different criterion of justification that satisfies the spirit of Husserlian transcendental phenomenology and allows for justifiably believing in the existence of unobservable scientific entities.

Open access

Mirjana Varjacic, Goran Babic, Dragan Loncar and Marija Bicanin

The Increased Cesarean Section Incidence - Is There a Clinical Justification?

Aim: The aim of this study is to overview the unrealistically high incidence of surgically completed deliveries through the frequency of deliveries completed by Caesarean section at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic in Kragujevac (Serbia) for the period from 1991 to 2010, the most common indications, frequency of vaginal delivery after Cesarean section and comparison of obtained results and indicators to world trends.

Material and Methods: A retrospective study covering all deliveries completed by Cesarean section in the period between 1991-2010, indications as well as all vaginal deliveries after previous Cesarean section in the same period. The total perinatal and early neonatal mortality in the same period is processed.

Results: The number of surgically completed deliveries in our clinic is very colorful and practically reflects many objective and subjective reasons for this trend. From 5% in the '90s to 15% in 2010, there is a big difference. Have we become less good obstetricians, or have become less patient, or the social trends have changes and the obstetrician has become interesting legally and in media, so that recently, more and more deliveries are completed surgically? Our clinic is still in the group of institutions with the lowest percentage of Caesarean section.

Conclussion: The current epidemic of surgically completed deliveries is a complex problem and is difficult to solve unless all the factors that influence it are brought under control and not publicly discussed.

Open access

Adam Putko and Agata Złotogórska

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to examine whether children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states is related, in a similar way as the ability to predict actions, to such aspects of executive function (EF) as executive control and working memory. An additional objective was to check whether the frequency of different types of justifications made by children in false-belief tasks is associated with aforementioned aspects of EF, as well as language. The study included 59 children aged 3-4 years. The ability to predict actions and to justify these predictions was measured with false-belief tasks. Luria’s hand-game was used to assess executive control, and the Counting and Labelling dual-task was used to assess working memory capacity. Language development was controlled using an embedded syntax test. It was found that executive control was a significant predictor of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states, even when age and language were taken into account. Results also indicated a relationship between the type of justification in the false-belief task and language development. With the development of language children gradually cease to justify their action predictions in terms of current location, and they tend to construct irrelevant justifications before they begin to refer to beliefs. Data suggest that executive control, in contrast to language, is a factor which affects the development of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions only in its later phase, during a shift from irrelevant to correct justifications.