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Agata Michalaszek and Joanna Sokolowska
Konrad Bocian and Bogdan Wojciszke
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Rajshree Panda and Deepa Kapoor
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Tadeusz Tyszka and Tomasz Zaleskiewicz
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The first premise is that creativity requires a focal perceiver perspective to be determined or assigned. As criteria for perception or judgment, what we currently consider “dimensions” of creativity instead may be “precursors.” Ultimately, creativity shifts meaning for the whole culture. The second premise is that creativity requires a temporal perspective: its assessment is time-dependent on the first instance the perceiver notices. If the perceiver accepts the creative “ it,” then it is shared for others to judge it, creating a diffusion and adaptation process. The strongest form of creativity, then, is when it stands the test of time, goes beyond its own zeitgeist, and is institutionalized for future generations.
The birth of aesthetics in the 18th century marks the passage from beauty to fine taste and the emergence of art as a separate sphere of culture. Indeed, before the Renaissance, art is not viewed separately from handcraft and the craftsman does not receive the distinctive status of a specialist of beautiful, an artist. This is due to two sets of reasons: first, the transformation of beauty, which becomes little by little a matter of taste and is subjective, and second, the emergence in the European culture of a special status for the artist, distinguishing him from the artisan. This slow evolution announced at the beginning of the Renaissance, will be completed only at the beginning of the 19th century
The paper presents the fuzzy methods in failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) for estimating the risk of the ship system failures based on the expert judgments. It provides an appropriate representation of the uncertain and ambiguous notions expressed in the natural language. An example of fuzzy intuitionistic FMEA analysis is illustrated in estimating the risk of tanker system failures. The results show that the proposed method in comparison with the traditional FMEA is more effective and useful in estimating the risk of ship system failures based on the expert opinions, available in such cases.
In her article the author deals with the amended provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, effective as of 1 January 2012, governing the so called personal enforcement (enforcement of judgment in relation to the upbringing of minor children). In addition to the interpretation of the new statutory provisions, some reference is made also to various interpretation problems resulting from the new legal regulation, and some solutions of these problems are offered. Having analysed the more restrictive compulsory measures which may be ordered by the court against any person who has refused to comply voluntarily with the court decision concerning custody or visitation of a minor child or the decision relating to taking away a child, the author concludes that such measures may not always be effective.
A. Brandowski, Hoang Nguyen and Wojciech Frąckowiak
: IMO, 1997. 8. Jaźwiński J., Smalko Z.: The use of expert method for estimation of the beta distribution parameters for evaluation of nondelectability and safety of technical means of transport (in Polish). Radom: Wyd. Instytutu Technologii Eksploatacji, 2001. 9. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases (edited by: Kahneman G., Slovic P., Tversky A.). Cambridge University Press, 2001. 10. Kwiesielewicz M.: Analytical hierarchical decision process. Non-fuzzy and fuzzy pairwise comparison (in Polish). Warsaw