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Open access

Simona Ifrim, Cornelia Amalinei, Elena Cojocaru and Mioara Calipsoana Matei

Abstract

Hypercholesterolemia has a major contribution to the occurrence and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Recent studies report the involvement of branched-chain amino acids in cholesterol methabolism. The aim of this research was to evaluate the role of valine, leucine and isoleucine on the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis in rats receiving hypercholesterolic diet. Material and methods: 50 male Wistar rats distributed into five groups with the following type of diets: group I (control) received standard diet; group II - cholesterol; group III - cholesterol and valine; group IV - cholesterol and leucine; group V - cholesterol and isoleucine. The experimental study was conducted over a period of 2 months. The animals were evaluated for the serum levels of total cholesterol at the beginning of the experiment, after 1 month and after 2 months. The collected tissue fragments of heart and aorta were prepared for the examination by optical microscopy in order to identify the atherosclerotic changes. Results: The most increased values of serum cholesterol were recorded in rats from group II (p=0.001), for the second and third evaluation. The histological examination showed early histopathological lesions on the vascular intima for the groups treated with cholesterol, valine, leucine, and isoleucine. These early changes (the occurrence of some superficial endothelial erosions, adhesion of erythrocytes and platelets) were correlated with the degree of the arterial wall damage, of the leukocytes adhesion to the arterial intima, and the discontinuities of the internal elastic lamina. Conclusion: The comparative study of the effects of the three essential amino acids revealed that valine induced a faster response than leucine and isoleucine on the improvement of biochemical parameters, but there were no significant differences between the three amino acids in terms of their protective ability, demonstrated by the histopathological lesion assessment.

Open access

Jana Kazandjieva, Dimitrina Guleva, Assia Nikolova and Sonya Márina

-like skin lesions secondary to isoleucine deficiency. Eur J Dermatol 2011;21(1):115-6. 19. Oztürk Y. Acrodermatitis enteropathica-like syndrome secondary to branched-chain amino acid deficiency in inborn errors of metabolism. Pediatr Dermatol 2008;25(3):415. 20. Frazier DM, Allgeier C, Homer C, Marriage BJ, Ogata B, Rohr F, et al. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach. Mol Genet Metab 2014l;112(3):210-7.

Open access

Svetlana Popadić, Zorica Ramić, Ljiljana Medenica, Vera Pravica and Dušan Popadić

Abstract

We examined single nucleotide rs11465553 polymorphism in the interleukin-17F gene causing valine to isoleucine substitution at the position 155 in the third exon of IL17F gene in Serbian patients with psoriasis and healthy blood donors. For the first time we found rs11465553 G (valine) and A (isoleucine) allele frequency in healthy Serbian population and in psoriasis patients, but without statistically significant difference between the two groups.

Open access

Marcin Gołyński, Maria Szpetnar, Marcin R. Tatara, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Magdalena Gołyńska, Łukasz Kurek, Marcin Szczepanik and Piotr Wilkołek

2000, 165, 607-615. 3. Christman A.A.: Factors affecting anserine and carnosine levels in skeletal muscles of various animals. Int J Biochem 1976, 9-10, 519-527. 4. Clément K., Viguerie N., Diehn M., Alizadeh A., Barbe P., Thalamas C., Storey J.D., Brown P.O., Barsh G.S., Langin D.: In vivo regulation of human skeletal muscle gene expression by thyroid. Horm Genome Res 2002, 12, 281-291. 5. Doi M., Yamaoka I., Nakayama M., Mochizuki S., Sugahara K., Yoshizawa F.: Isoleucine, a blood glucose-lowering amino acid

Open access

Adam Brodzki, Piotr Brodzki, Maria Szpetnar and Marcin R. Tatara

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine serum free amino acid concentration in male dogs suffering from benign and malignant perianal tumours. Serum concentrations of cysteic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, tryptophan, methionine, arginine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine were significantly changed in dogs suffering from benign and/or malignant tumours when compared to the control group (P<0.05). Serum concentration of serine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine was not influenced in dogs with neoplastic disease (P>0.05). The evaluation of serum free amino acid concentration, has shown that threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and glycine have the highest diagnostic and prognostic value in dogs suffering from benign and malignant perianal tumours. Highly diagnostic and prognostic value in relation to benign tumour growth was also found while evaluating branched chain and acidic groups of amino acids. Serine, phenylalanine, lysine, and histidine, as well as alkaline amino acids were proved not to have diagnostic and prognostic value in dogs with the tumours. Thus, the evaluation of free amino acid concentration may serve diagnostic purposes and help in tumour malignancy differentiation. The elaborated experimental model may be used in further studies on neoplastic disease development and monitoring of applied treatment efficiency.

Open access

Katayoun Mahdavi Ara, Larry T. Taylor and William. M. Coleman

Summary

In the present work, microwave and Parr reactors were utilized for synthesis of pyrazines from plant-based biomass in the presence of ammonia and different amino acids. Using these techniques led to synthesis of a relatively wide range of pyrazines with sweet odor and chocolate-like smell. The optimum synthetic conditions to have maximum pyrazine yield for both the microwave and Parr reactions were 41 g of fructose/glucose syrup derived from cellulosic biomass, 28 mL NH4OH (30%), and 0.96 g L-threonine, 0.56 g L-valine, 0.5 g L-leucine, and 0.5 g L-isoleucine at 120 °C for 30 min. Quantitative results obtained via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using the traditional open-heated oil bath method have been compared with data obtained via microwave and Parr reactors. In these two latter methods, sealed vessels under high pressure and higher temperature were used. The yield of synthesized pyrazines increased dramatically with both microwave and Parr reactors. Surprisingly, the yield of synthesized pyrazines was both reproducible and nearly two times higher via the Parr reactor than that observed with the microwave reactor under comparable conditions.

Open access

Wiesława Kranc, Maurycy Jankowski, Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Ronza Khozmi, Artur Bryja, Sylwia Borys, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Michal Jeseta, Magdalena Magas, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P. Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty

Abstract

The ovary is part of the reproductive system, possessing very important functions in the reproduction process (ovum and embryo transfer, providing a suitable environment for sperm capacitation, etc.). There are two types of cells in the fallopian tubes: alveolar and secretive cells. These study shows the metabolic processes in pig oviductal epithelial cells associated with the activation of signaling pathways of amino acids metabolism and degradation during long-term in vitro culture. Oviductal epithelial cells from 45 colonies in the anestrous phase of the estrous cycle have been utilized in this study. RNA extract from the OEC primary cultures was pooled after 24h, 7days, 15 days and 30 days from the beginning of culture and the transcriptome investigated by Affymetrix® Porcine Gene 1.1 ST. From the whole transcript that consisted of 2009 different genes, 1537 were upregulated and 995 were downregulated after 7 days of culture, 1471 were upregulated and 1061 were downregulated after 15 days of culture and 1329 were upregulated and 1203 were downregulated after 30 days of culture. The results of these studies provide, for the first time, information on the activation of metabolic pathways of amino acids such as valine, leucine, isoleucine, cysteine, and methionine in the investigated tissue. They also indicate genes that may be OECs-specific genetic markers that are expressed or upregulated during long-term in vitro culture.

Open access

Elaheh Foroumandi, Mohammad Alizadeh and Sorayya Kheirouri

Summary

Background: Glycative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of various degenerative disorders. This study sought to determine the effect of age-related changes in amino acids on serum levels of pentosidine and carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) in healthy individuals.

Methods: The subjects were 78 healthy individuals categorized into three age groups. The ages of the groups were as follows: 26 young adults (20–30 y, 25.2±3.03), 26 middle-aged adults (35–50 y, 39.46±6.97) and 26 older adults (60 y or older, 69.80±10.01). Serum levels of pentosidine and CML were measured by ELISA and levels of plasma amino acids were determined using HPLC.

Results: Serum levels of pentosidine and CML in the youngest group were higher than in the oldest group (p=0.026, 0.029, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the serum levels of pentosidine and CML and the levels of plasmaTyrosine (p=0.032, r=0.211 and p=0.037, r=0.224), Valine (p=0.037, r=0.224 and p=0.021, r=0.247) and Isoleucine (p=0.041, r=0.203 and p=0.021, r=0.247), respectively. Serum levels of pentosidine and CML may be modulated by the plasma levels of selected amino acids.

Conclusions: Better understanding of the role of these selective amino acids might provide new perception of how glycation pathways may be altered and pave the way for new therapeutic principles.

Open access

Katarzyna Janiszewska, Magda Aniołowska and Piotr Nowakowski

Free Amino Acids Content of Honeys from Poland

The objective of this study was to investigate free amino acids composition of Polish honeys with different botanical origin. Honeys (n=18) with dominant buckwheat, raspberry, acacia, heather and goldenrod pollen, and honeydew honey were analysed. For determination of free amino acids liquid chromatography methods were applied. Identification of 25 free amino acids was performed. Considerable variation in the total content of free amino acids ranging from 186.19 mg/kg to 921.08 mg/kg was stated. The dominant free amino acid in all types of honey was proline with the highest detected amount in one sample of heather honey 387.88 mg/kg. As an indicator of honeys with predominant raspberry and buckwheat pollen high concentrations of aspartic acid and asparagine (accounting for ca. 20 and more mg/kg) are suggested. The content of tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine and valine ranging from 10 to ca. 20 mg/kg was characteristic of raspberry and at concentrations above 20 mg/kg of buckwheat honeys. The cluster analysis showed the closest correlation between heather and goldenrod honeys. The largest distance was stated between buckwheat and all other honey groups. The results show that it was impossible to clearly distinguish the botanical origins of Polish honey samples based on their amino acid composition.

Open access

Shehu Latunji Akintola, Ayodele Brown, Abubakar Bakare, Oluwafemi David Osowo and Beatrice Omolola

Abstract

There are information gaps in the knowledge of the impacts of traditional techniques of fish preservation used to meet market demands even though there are growing concerns of the effects of these methods of preservation on product forms and qualities. In this study the effects of commonly used preservation techniques of hot smoking and sun-drying on the nutritional composition of Penaeus monodon were investigated. Proximate values varied significantly (P<0.05) except for protein the dominant constituent with an average value of 64%. Stearic acid varied significantly (P<0.05) with lowest values of 2.30% in smoked specimens. Oleic acid was the highest fatty acid thus the predominance of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with smoked samples having predominant (P<0.05) values. ω-3/ ω-6 ratios of 7.76, 13.01 and 8.16 in fresh, smoked and sundried were in favour of the omega 3 with EPA (16.95±0.76-18.43±1.01%) being significantly higher (P<0.05) to the DHA (9.36±0.54-11.90±0.27%). Smoked forms had significantly higher values (P<0.05) of alanine, threonine, tyrosine and cysteine. Arginine and histidine were significantly raised (P<0.05) in sundried specimens. Isoleucine, methionine, aspartate, glycine and proline remained highest (P<0.05) in fresh samples. Lysine was limiting in smoked and sundried specimens. Smoked products offered healthiest advantage with the lowest values of saturated fatty acids (25.10%), index of atherogenicity (0.58), index of thrombogenicity (0.20) and bearing in mind goal of reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) in food consumption. This paper offers the first holistic work on nutritional evaluations of the three commonest forms for which Giant tiger shrimps are frequently consumed.