stem strength and related traits in a doubled-haploid population of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 141: 1–9. J ones L, E nnos AR, and T urner SR. 2001. Cloning and characterization of irregular xylem4 (irx4): a severely lignin-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis . The Plant Journal 26: 205–216. J ung H-JG. 2003. Maize stem tissues: ferulate deposition in developing internode cell walls. Phytochemistry 63: 543–549. J ung H, and C asler M. 2006. Maize stem tissues: cell wall concentration and composition during development. Crop
Lidija Begović, Jelena Ravlić, Hrvoje Lepeduš, Dunja Leljak-Levanić and Vera Cesar
Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Justyna Góraj, Kensuke Miyamoto, Junichi Ueda and Marian Saniewski
. New Phytol. 78: 579-591. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1977.tb02161.x. Hasenstein K.-H., Kaldewey H. 1984. Distribution and metabolism of IAA in relation to the growth of Helianthus hypocotyls. Bot. Gaz. 145: 163-169. DOI: 10.1086/337442. McKay M.J., Ross J.J., Lawrence N.L., Cramp R.E., Beveridge C.A., Reid J.B. 1994. Control of internode length in Pisum sativum . Further evidence for the involvement of indole-3-acetic acid. Plant Physiol. 106: 1521-1526. DOI: 10.1104/pp.106.4.1521. Miyamoto K., Kamisaka S. 1988
barley phytomer. Annals of Botany, 100, 725–733. Fournier C, Andrieu B (2000): Dynamics of the elongation of internodes in maize ( Zea mays L.): analysis of phases of elongation and their relationships to phytomer development. Annals of Botany, 86, 551–563. Geeta R (2016): KNOX genes and shoot development in angiosperms: old actors in new roles? Phytomorphology, 66, 57–69. Henkel K (2003): Die Mikrofibel. Mikrobiologische Vereinigung München e.V. http://www.klaus-henkel.de/mikrofibel.pdf . Accessed 26 June, 2016. (in German) Hitch PA, Sharman
Junichi Ueda, Justyna Góraj, Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak and Kensuke Miyamoto
E., Hobbie L., Brown D., Bernasconi P., Turner J., Muday G., Estelle M. 1997. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar transport and diverse morphological defects. PLANT CELL 9: 745-757. Saniewski M., de Munk W.J. 1981. Hormonal control of shoot elongation in tulips. SCI. HORT., 5: 363-372. Saniewski M., Góraj J., Węgrzynowicz- Lesiak E., Okubo H., Miyamoto K., Ueda J. 2010. Different growth of excised and intact fourth internode after removal of the flower bud
Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec
Cereal straw is an important biomass source in Europe. This work assessed: 1) the morphological and energetic characteristics of culms of spring and winter cereals, 2) the energy deposited in the different aboveground parts of cereals, 3) losses of energy due to different cutting heights. The straw of winter and spring cereals was collected from arable fields during the seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in southern Poland. Detailed biometric measurements of culms and internodes were performed. The losses of straw biomass and energy were assessed during simulation of cutting the culm at different heights, up to 50 cm. Longer and heavier culms were developed by winter wheat and triticale and oat. Cutting of straw up to 10 cm did not lead to significant losses in straw yield. The total amount of energy in the culms was as follows: triticale > winter wheat > oat > spring wheat > winter barley > spring barley. Cutting the culms above 20 cm led to significant differences in terms of biomass energy between cereal species. The smallest losses of energy were recorded for spring and winter barley. Oat and barley accumulated the highest energy in grains.
Elżbieta Dmyterko and Arkadiusz Bruchwald
Model rozwoju pędu wierzchołkowego i jego ugałęzienia u dojrzałej brzozy omszonej (Betula pubescens Ehrh.)
Danuta Packa, Marian Wiwart, Elżbieta Suchowilska and Teresa Bieńkowska
The cross-sections of first and second internodes were analyzed under a light and fluorescence microscopes in six varieties of Triticum spelta, two varieties of T. polonicum, and one variety of T. aestivum. The morphometric parameters of stem cross-sections were measured. The analyzed wheats were characterized by significant differences in traits associated with lodging resistance ie: internode diameter, lumen diameter, stem wall thickness, mechanical layer thickness, area of transverse section, and area of lumen for the first and second internode and between the internodes. In all varieties, the values of internode diameter, lumen diameter, area of transverse section and area of lumen were higher for the second internode than for the first internode, whereas the reverse was reported for stem wall thickness and mechanical layer thickness The results of the principal component analysis and section modulus values revealed similarities between spring spelt Wirtas and Rubinas and between common wheat Kontesa and winter spelt Poeme and Epanis. The number of large vascular bundles varied across the studied varieties. The average number of vascular bundles in common wheat Kontesa was significantly higher than in spring spelt Rubinas and Wirtas and significantly lower than in Polish wheat Pol-3 and winter spelt Epanis and Poeme.
A. Nilgün Atay and Fatma Koyuncu
Growth retardants have great potential to balance between vegetative and reproductive growth. To assess the effects of prohexadione-calcium (Pro-Ca, Regalis) on reproductive and vegetative growth, return bloom, fruit set, and also fruit quality in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple grafted on M.9 rootstock, an experiment was performed during 2010-2012. The applications of 125 mg dm-3 Pro-Ca on the same trees in each year resulted in a 40-43% shoot length reducing. Internodes length decreased with Pro-Ca at about 30%, while total node number was unaffected. Results indicate that Pro-Ca applications have no effects on tree trunk growth, flowering, yield, fruit set and development. Pro-Ca also didn’t have any negative impact on fruit quality during the three consecutive years. Moreover, Pro-Ca resulted in higher fruit size compared to control in the third year of trial. The results of this experiment clearly suggest that fruit growers can use Pro- Ca for the control of vegetative growth without having any negative effects on fruit quality and yield parameters. Once a full canopy has been achieved, annual shoot growth can be suppressed in the range of 20 to 30 cm with 125 mg dm-3 Pro-Ca treatment in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees.
Koonalda Cave is located on the Nullarbor Plain of South Australia and is one of 17 deep karst caves in this region. In 2014, the cave was listed as a National Heritage Place in recognition of its significant archaeological and cultural heritage features. It In order to understand the antiquity of and complex human activity in this site a range of dating methods have been applied including typologic, radiometric and luminescence. Each has been challenged and the chronology of this highly significant site has relied on contextual data from other sites. This paper presents an overview of the archaeology recorded at Koonalda Cave, the issues in dating sites in deep karst systems and emphasises the urgent need to resolve these issues so that a reliable chronology can be presented for Koonalda Cave.
G. R. Koerber and T. Hancock
A naturally occurring putative hybrid between Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell and Eucalyptus gracilis F. Muell called Green Box tolerates saline conditions of the River Murray floodplains better than E. largiflorens. Revegetation strategies utilizing seedlings of Green Box have had limited success because only a few are Green Box and the majority are throw backs to E. gracilis and E. largiflorens. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify traits characteristic of Green Box and AFLP markers associated with the traits enabling selection at the seedling stage. This was done by non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) to test for statistically significant associations between morphological and physiological traits with 232 AFLP markers from 9 primer combinations. OVERALS with all markers produced 1st and 2nd dimensions accounting for 80 and 74% of variation respectively. Green Box plants were placed intermediate between E. gracillis and E. largiflorens according to leaf colour, gloss and nitrogen with component loadings (lc) of 0.340, 0.615 and 0.294 respectively. A second approach of simple linear regression of morphological and physiological traits against all 232 AFLP markers singled out 17 with significance P<0.05. Thirteen of these were also identified by OVERALS. Four occurred with high frequency in Green Box and E. largiflorens distinguishing them from E. gracilis. In order to separate Green Box and E. largiflorens, the segregation of a further three markers can be used to align Green Box with E. gracilis. Therefore, the segregation of 7 markers can be utilized to select Green Box.