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Olena Hrechyshkina CDFMR and Maryia Samakhavets CDFMR
energy- and material-intensive products; focus of industrial production on the purchase of external resources; and the lack of a wide range of export products (including innovative ones).
External factors include: deteriorating external environment and greater international competition in major foreign markets in recent years; devaluation of the currencies of major trading partners, leading to a decrease in the value of exports; danger of reducing the representation of national producers in traditional markets; increase in leadership struggles for technological
Kristóf Gyódi, Maciej Sobolewski and Michał Ziembiński
the other hand, the level of price dispersion is fairly stable in the EU15. Recently, the European Commission (EC) has undertaken several legal initiatives, such as geo-blocking directive or vertical restraints inquiry to foster competition on digital single market. EC hopes that with increased volume of cross-border trade, further reduction of price dispersion will be achieved, even though there is still lack of understanding of all the factors and implications behind it. Importantly, lowering the costs of arbitrage between markets subject to third degree price
Blotevogel 2002 ). As Germany does not have the equivalent of a (capital) primate city like Paris in France or London in the United Kingdom, it does not have what could be described as a ‘truly’ global city, and thus its geo-economic reach in the world economy is spread between several domestic cities rather than being channelled through one or two geo-economic powerhouses (including all the agglomeration economies that follow in the material and immaterial spheres of capital and labour).
The complexities of the German urban system, therefore, and their place in the ever
and Public Diplomacy, 6 (1): 1 - 10.
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Jarosław Chmielewski, Piotr Kusztal and Ilona Żeber-Dzikowska
, the Himalayas; 3, the Bay of Bengal.
The contaminated Buriganga, the only river in Hazaribagh [ Varene, Darblay 2012 ].
In Hazaribagh, on the area of nearly 10 ha, there are more than 200 primitive tanneries. Every year, they produce millions pieces of leather, which are used to make products delivered to the European market. Every day, raw (toxic) liquid industrial waste from the workshops is poured directly into the sewage system and then to the Buriganga river, which resembles a gutter ( Fig. 7 ). As for the contaminated
regional features which apparently strengthen the region's resilience.
2 Macroeconomic Constraints of Regional Development in Poland
The crisis triggered by the 'dot-com bubble' in the years 2000–2002 caused a larger decrease in the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of the relatively weak Polish economy than in other EU countries. The current crisis (first wave) has had a smaller impact on the Polish economy
( Fig. 1 ). GDP per capita was constantly increasing at the beginning of the 21st century, on average by approximately 2.3%. During the period 2004
, circus) and literature (see Flew, Cunningham, 2010 ; ESPON, 2011 ). The difference between the concepts lies also in the criterion of identification. The cultural sector is made up of traditional fields of art, the result of which has an artistic value, and creative activities include those that use culture as an added value in the production of extra-cultural products such as architecture, advertising or design (see Stryjakiewicz and others, 2014 ; Towse, 2011).
Cultural activities produce cultural products and services. The purpose of a cultural product is to
note 1, at p. xv (“The mightiest implement of human democracy is postal service. Good postal facilities prompt and encourage the spirit and service of that world democracy which makes for the freedom and happiness of mankind.”). However, the “public service” rationale for the post office—as way to facilitate democracy and empower citizens—is primarily a product of the nineteenth century, not of the eighteenth. As explained below, the initial goals of the postal system were to strengthen the federal government, and those in control of the federal government.