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Pingdong Jia

1 Introduction Autophagy, a biological phenomenon in eukaryotic cells, is a self-balancing process for self-protection of cells. Autophagy is also a procedural death mechanism that coexists with apoptosis and necrosis. The three autophagic approaches are macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy [ 1 , 2 ]. This article discusses the role of macroautophagy in virus infection (especially, retroviral infection) and the possible underlying mechanism. 2 Mechanism and role of autophagy in organisms Autophagy, which plays a key role in

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Hanyu Wang

References 1 Mailloux LU, Bellucci AG, Wilkes BM, et al . Mortality in dialysis patients: Analysis of the causes of death. Am J Kidney Dis, 1991 (18):326-327. 2 Wei Q. Study on Hemodialysis Patients with Concurrent Infection. Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology, 2004,14 (5): 599 - 600. 3 Wan H. Analysis on Factors of Central Venous Catheter Infection and Status Quo of Nursing Research. Chinese Nursing Research, 2005,19 (9): 1791 - 1792. 4 Ma Y. Observation on the Nursing Effect of the Prevention of Catheter-related Infection in Hemodialysis

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Jiangeng Han, Xin Wang, Zheng Chen, Ning Gao and Chen Wang

With the increased prevalence of diabetes, related acute and chronic metabolic disorders and various complications, such as complications in the blood vessels and nerves, also increase significantly, thereby posing the challenges for the overall survival of patients with diabetes. Patients with diabetes suffer from T-lymphocyte and neutrophil dysfunction, decreased humoral immune function, oxidative–antioxidative imbalance, and defects in opsonization and phagocytosis [ 1 ]. Patients with diabetes are significantly prone to infection, which is difficult to

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Jin Zhang

whether it is cleared by the host, and the amount of residual bacteria determines whether it causes symptoms of clinical infection. MP infection only causes disease in the human body. It spreads through droplets and can survive in the respiratory tract for several weeks or several months with 1–3 weeks of incubation [ 1 ]. MP infection is a seasonal disease and is frequently acquired in the fall. Most MP infections cause mild clinical symptoms and feature self-limiting characteristics. MP has a common antigen with the myocardium, lung, and brain tissue of human beings

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Li Han

References 1 Cheng W, Shivshankar P, Li Z, et al. Caspase-1 contributes to Chlamydia trachomatis-induced upper urogenital tract inflammatory pathologies without affecting the course of infection. Infect Immun, 2008, 76:515-522. 2 Hvid M, Baczynska A, Deleuran B, et al . Interleukin-1is the initiator of Fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Cell Microbiol, 2007, 9:2795-2803. 3 Lu H, Shen C, Brunham RC. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of epithelial cells induces the activation of caspase-1 and release of mature IL

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Ming-ming Wang, Su-nan Cui and Yan-xue Gong

, Shams S. Usefulness of procalcitonin rapid test for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children in the emergency department. Pediatr Int 2010; 52(2): 196-198. 6 Deis JN, Creech CB, Estrada CM, Abramo TJ. Procalcitonin as a marker of severe bacterial infection in children in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 2010; 26(1): 51-60. 7 Limper M, de Kruif MD, Duits AJ, Brandjes DP, van Gorp EC. The diagnostic role of procalcitonin and other biomarkers in discriminating infectious from non-infectious fever. J Infect Dis 2010; 60

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Guoxiu Lu

[ 2 ]. Mortality caused by sepsis accounted for 6% of the total neonatal mortality and 14% of the total mortality of children [ 3 ]. Approximately 260,000 patients have been diagnosed with sepsis in the emergency department in the United States annually. The incidence rate is growing by 0.07% every 2 years. The mortality rate of sepsis among children is 10.3%–12.8% [ 4 ]. The mortality rate of sepsis in China (up to 30%) ranks first in the world [ 5 ]. Effective and timely control of infection is the key to improving the survival rate of children with sepsis. The

Open access

Fengtan Li

References 1 Park IH, Choi du Y, Oh YK, et al . A case of acute myopericarditis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in a child. Korean Circ J, 2012, 42(10):709-13. 2 Abele-Horn, W. Franck, U. Busch, et al . Transverse myelitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Clin Infect Dis, 1998, 26(11):909-12. 3 Kung CM, Wang RH, Wang HL. High prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in hepatitis C virus-infected hemodialysis patients. Clin Lab, 2012, 58(9):1037-43. 4 Arav-Boger R, Assia A, Spirer Z, et al . Cholestatic

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Zhitao Guo

References 1 Hao M. Prevention and Control of Neurological Nosocomial Infection of Elderly Patients. Chemists, 2011, 6: 173. 2 Gao R, Liu Y, Zhao G, et al . Investigation and Analysis of Nosocomial Infection in Stroke Patients. Journal of Nursing Administration, 2013, 3: 17-18. 3 Peng D, Huang H, Wu J, etc. Characteristics of Acquired Lung Infection in Stroke Patients. Chinese Journal of Hospital Infection, 2012, 8: 591-593. 4 Zhang L. Clinical Analysis and Nursing Countermeasures of Nosocomial Infection of Elderly Intensive Care Unit

Open access

Tao Wang

Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports, 2012, 1(3): 95-105. 10 Esmaeili M, Bonyadi M, Dastranj A, et al . HPV typing in women with cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions in northwestern Iran. Gynecol Obstet Invest, 2008, 66(1): 68-72. 11 Vinodhini K, Shanmughapriya S, Das BC, et al . Prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection among women from various provinces of the world. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2012, 285(3): 771-777. 12 Gita Eslami, Maryam Golshani, Mohammad Rakhshan, et al . PCR detection and high risk typing of human