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Robert Cichowicz and Grzegorz Wielgosiński

Abstract

The condition and quality of atmospheric air plays a very important role in the life of every living organism, including man. Every day we breathe atmospheric air containing CO2 whose level changes depending both on many external factors and physicochemical processes. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air changes, among other things, due to the influence of communication routes which may adversely affect the environment. For this reason it is necessary to analyze changes in CO2 concentrations and try to determine their impact on the functioning of users of the area (so, one can observe and analyze seasonal impact of communication routes on separate sub-areas of research).

Open access

Tomasz Olszowski

.04.034. [8] Olszowski T, Tomaszewska B, Góralna-Włodarczyk K. Air quality in non-industrialised area in the typical Polish countryside based on measurements of selected pollutants in immission and deposition phase. Atmos Environ. 2012;50:139-147. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.12.049. [9] Yang W, Omaye ST. Air pollutants, oxidative stress and human health. Mut Res Gen Tox. 2009;674:45-54.DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.10.005. [10] Anderson HR. Air pollution and mortality: A history. Atmos Environ. 2009;43:142-152.DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008

Open access

Robert Cichowicz and Grzegorz Wielgosiński

Abstract

Variations in immission fields resulting from emissions and pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere were investigated. The analysis was based on data from the four-year period covering the years 2012-2015, collected in two automatic atmospheric air monitoring stations, one located in Germany in Magdeburg which is the capital of Saxony-Anhalt and the other in Poland in Lodz, i.e. the seat of Lodz Region authorities. Selected immission monitoring stations in both cities are located in the areas with similar urban development and are characterized by high levels of pedestrian and car traffic. In both measuring stations the following atmospheric air pollutants were measured: PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, and ozone (carbon monoxide was analyzed only for the station located in Lodz). On the basis of the measured data the periodic exceedance of air pollution limit values measured at both monitoring stations were observed, as well as the levels of particular pollutants and changes in immission fields were analyzed. It seems that this information may be useful not only to the competent authorities of the country but also to the users of these areas.

Open access

Robert Cichowicz, Grzegorz Wielgosiński and Agata Targaszewska

Prawo Ochrony Środowiska (Environmental Protection Law). DzU 2001, nr 62, poz. 627. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20010620627 . [10] Skrzypski J. Analiza i modelowanie pól immisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza w dużych miastach na przykładzie Łodzi. (Analysis and modeling of immission fields of air pollutants in large cities on the example of Lodz). Łódź: Polish Academy of Science, Branch in Łodz; 2002. [11] Nemitz E, Hargreaves KJ, McDonald AG, Dorsey JR, Fowler D. Micrometeorological measurements of the urban heat budget and CO 2 emissions on

Open access

Ján Kukla, Eduard Bublinec, Branislav Schieber, Daniela Kellerová, Svetlana Bičárová and Rastislav Janík

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a 23-year study of sulphate sulphur dynamics in beech ecosystems exposed to different immission loads. The amounts of S-SO4 2− in precipitation water entering the ecosystems were: the Kremnické vrchy Mts, a clear-cut area 519 kg ha−1 (24.7 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 476 kg ha−1 (22.7 kg ha−1 per year); the Štiavnické vrchy Mts an open place 401 kg ha−1 (24.6 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 324 kg ha−1 (19.1 kg ha−1 per year). The average SO4 2− concentrations in lysimetric solutions penetrating through surface humus to a depth of Cambisol 10 and 25 cm were increased as follows: in the Kremnické vrchy Mts from 12.71 to 16.17 mg l−1 and in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts from 18.73 to 28.80 mg l−1. The S-SO4 −2 amounts penetrating the individual soil layers in the Kremnické vrchy Mts were as follows: in case of surface humus on clear-cut area 459 kg ha−1 (20.9 kg ha−1 per year), in beech forest 433 kg ha−1 (19.7 kg ha−1 per year); below 10 cm organo-mineral layer of the mentioned plots penetrated 169–171 kg ha−1 (7.7–7.8 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer 155–255 kg ha−1 (7.1−11.6 kg ha−1 per year) – a higher amount was found on clear-cut area with an episodic lateral flow of soil solutions. In beech forest of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts penetrated below surface humus 424 kg ha−1 S-SO4 2− (18.9 kg ha−1 per year), below 10 cm mineral layer 458 kg ha−1 S-SO4 2− (19.9 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer as much as 599 kg ha−1 S-SO4 2− (26.0 kg ha−1 per year). This fact was caused by frequent lateral flow of soil solutions. The results indicate that the assumption about lower immission load of the beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts is wrong, at least in the case of S-SO4 2−. The testing has revealed that the studied beech ecosystems differ very significantly in sulphur amounts penetrating under 0.10 m and 0.25 m. The inter-annual differences were insignificant.

Open access

Katarína Gašová, Margita Kuklová and Ján Kukla

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to compare the litterfall and surface humus (Oo) quality in nudal beech stands with different emission-immission load from the Al smelter Žiar nad Hronom. The study was carried out in the Kremnické vrchy Mts (control stand, 18 km from the emission source) and the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (stressed stand, 1.5 km from the emission source), both in Central Slovakia. The contents of arsenic and nutrients (Cat, Mgt, Kt, Nat), with exception of calcium in the beech litterfall from the stressed stand were markedly higher (by 4.3%, 23.9%, 2.1% and 87.9%, respectively) compared to the samples taken from the control plot. On the contrary, the surface humus samples (with the exception of Na in the necrotic Oon subhorizon) from control plot were richer in nutrients. However, significant differences (p < 0.01) between the plots were observed for Ca content in the litterfall as well as in the surface humus. The concentrations of As in Oo samples from the stressed stand mainly increased with the organic horizon depth (mg kg-1): necrotic Oon 1.10 < fermentation Oof 3.1 < humification Ooh 55.6. The results showed, that As amounts detected in subhorizon Ooh and in beech litterfall from the stressed stand were higher than the limit values, thus indicating that the environment of the Žiar territory is exposed to persistent negative impacts of industrial activities.

Open access

Jozefína Pokrývková and Emília Micáková

Abstract

The results of imperfect knowledge of the natural environment’s basic laws show that the negative effects of our actions are manifested in most cases only belatedly, in forms such as: the loss of arable land, the extinction of rare species of plants and animals, the depletion of the ozone layer, the climate change, the deterioration of air quality, the acid rain, the worsening quality of surface and ground water, the surface loss of rainforests and many other negative aspects of our thoughtless actions. For the measurement of sulphur concentration, we chose locality surrounding the power plant Vojany, where we identified two locations for mounting our stands. The first place was the village Tušice, and the second one the area of AMS Leles. This is where we planted in alkaline strips in stands used for this purpose and by the sorption – cumulative method we evaluated concentrations of sulphur amount collected on the strips. In the period 2012–2014, we conducted experiments in regular 30-day intervals; we performed 104 analyses of filter plates using the sorption-cumulative method. The current position of some habitats infestation causes damage to various parts of environment. Therefore, we consider it relevant to continue in monitoring this affliction and quantifying the extent of its negative effects. The proposed procedure with the possibility of a retrospective determination of concentrations of SO2 using mathematical modelling can also be used for the determination of old burdens.

Open access

Erik Gawel and Stefan Möckel

-Philosophie zu anspruchsvoll sein (weil technisch nicht zu realisieren), während sie in den Augen der… [Umwelt-] Qualitätsstandard-Philosophie völlig unzureichend ist (weil die Immission über den Zielwerten liegt)”; vgl. dazu auch Gawel (1999 : 237 ff.). Als Fazit dieser Debatte kann jedenfalls gelten, dass zwischen den jeweiligen Sphären erhebliche Friktionen auftreten, so dass konzeptionell klar geregelt sein sollte, ob ein instrumenteller Zugriff auf Basis des Emissions- oder des Immissionsprinzips erfolgt. Eine bloße „Öffnung“ etwa der bislang strikt

Open access

Tomasz Kniaziewicz

Abstract

The article presents the results of the first nationwide study of a pro-ecological character, including the problem of the impact of shipping (in a particular basin) on the terrestrial human environment. Shipping in the waters of the Bay of Gdansk is taken as an example of the real system and a detailed identification of the operating conditions for the vessels has been undertaken. Data were obtained from the analysis of information gathered by surveillance systems of vessel traffic (such as Automatic Identification System - AIS) for the complete identification of parameters and characteristics of shipping traffic in the form of deterministic and statistical mathematical models. On the basis of these mathematical models of the emission of harmful exhaust emissions from marine engines have been developed. Models of the spread of exhaust gas are based on the models of Gauss, Euler and Lagrange. Their use has enabled a scientific tool to evaluate the contribution of immission of harmful compounds in the global immission of pollutants in the atmospheric air of the Tri-city agglomeration to be obtained.

Open access

Juraj Fazekaš, Danica Fazekašová, Ondrej Hronec, Eva Benková and Martin Boltižiar

Abstract

This paper is focused on the impacts of alkaline and metal deposition on soil and vegetation in the immission field of magnesium factory Jelšava-Lubeník (Slovakia). Soil samples and the foliage of vegetation were obtained from the Jelšava-Lubeník area with specific alkaline pollutants. The examined area is one of the most devastated regions of Slovakia. From the point of view of environmental regionalization, it belongs to an environmentally damaged area of Category 3. The total content of heavy metals in the soil and vegetation (Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Mg) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Soil reaction was determined in a solution of 0.01 M CaCl2. Vegetation was assessed by the Braun-Blanquet scale. In conclusion, we can say that spray particles of free magnesium oxide (MgO) strongly influence soil reaction, diversity, and vegetation cover. The research showed that the investigated sites were mostly strongly alkaline; the contents of Cr, Mn and Mg were over the toxicity limit, while the measured values of Pb and Zn did not exceed the limits set by the law. The values that measured significantly above the set limit show contamination that can be considered harmful and toxic. In the monitored species, that is, Agrostis stolonifera, Elytrigia repens and Phragmites australis, an over-limit content of Pb and Zn and toxic contents of Mg and Mn were found.