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Yelin Wang, Suan-Kien Foo and Qibing He
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The paper presents a potential idealization of the real Stirling cycle. This idealization is performed by modifying the piston movement corresponding to the ideal Stirling cycle. The focus is on the cycle thermodynamics with respect to the indicated efficiency and indicated power. A detailed 1-D simulation model of a Stirling engine is used as a tool for this assessment. The model includes real non-zero volumes of heater, regenerator, cooler and connecting pipe. The model is created in the GT Power commercial simulation software.
This paper critically analyzes the fiction-view of scientific modeling, which exploits presumed analogies between literary fiction and model building in science. The basic idea is that in both fiction and scientific modeling fictional worlds are created. The paper argues that the fiction-view comes closest to certain scientific thought experiments, especially those involving demons in science and to literary movements like naturalism. But the paper concludes that the dissimilarities prevail over the similarities. The fiction-view fails to do justice to the plurality of model types used in science; it fails to realize that a function like idealization only makes sense in science because models, unlike works of fiction, can be de-idealized; it fails to distinguish sufficiently between the make-believe (fictional) worlds created in fiction and the hypothetical (as-if) worlds envisaged in models. Representation characterized in the fiction-view as a license to draw inferences does not sufficiently distinguish between inferences in fiction from inferences in scientific modeling. To highlight the contrast the paper proposes to explicate representation in terms of satisfaction of constraints.
., (Ed.) (2009). Fictions in science: Philosophical essays on modeling and idealization. Vol. 4. New York: Routledge. Sun, R. (2009). Theoretical status of computational cognitive modeling. Cognitive Systems Research, 10(2), 124-140. Tolman, E. C. (1939). Prediction of vicarious trial and error by means of the schematic sowbug. Psychological Review, 46(4), 318-336. Webb, B. (2009). Animals versus animats: Or why not model the real iguana? Adaptive Behavior, 17(4) (July 28), 269-286. Weber, B. H., & Depew
Witold Rybiński and Jarosław Mikielewicz
Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is used, amongst the others, in geothermal facilities, in waste heat recovery or in domestic combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The paper presents optimization of an idealized ORC equivalent of the Carnot cycle with non-zero temperature difference in heat exchangers and with energy dissipation caused by the viscous fluid flow. In this analysis the amount of heat outgoing from the ORC is given. Such a case corresponds to the application of an ORC in domestic CHP. This assumption is different from the most of ORC models where the incoming amount of heat is given.
The paper addresses the family of questions that arose from the field of interactions between phenomenology and the cognitive sciences. On the one hand, apparently partial coextensivity of research domain of phenomenology and the cognitive sciences sets the goal of their cooperation and mutual inspiration. On the other hand, there are some obstacles on the path to achieve this goal: phenomenology and the cognitive sciences have different traditions, they speak different languages, they have adopted different methodological approaches, and last but not least, their prominent exponents exhibits different styles of thinking. In order to clarify this complicated area of tensions, the paper presents the results of philosophical reflections of such topics as: 1) philosophical presuppositions and postulates of the cognitive sciences 2) abstraction of some phenomena during idealisation and the dialectical model of science's development 3) argumentation based on prediction of future development of the cognitive sciences. This finally leads to the formulation of a phenomenology-based postulate for adequate model of mind and the discussion of humanistic dimension of cognitive sciences.
The article presents a discourse on the mechanism by which price bubbles emerge and burst. For idealization purposes the author assumes that even though price bubbles emerge in various markets, their morphology differs from market to market, be it the hi-tech stock (or, more generally, the stock market), the real estate market (where land is of fixed supply) or the housing market. The sources of their diversification lie in the type and weight of the causes of their appearance, the differences between their causative and functional determinants and the market feedbacks. Any interpretation of the nomological diversification of price bubbles (in the sense of their categorisation) requires looking at the system pragmatics and the market in which they emerge. Thus the designations of economic systems and the specifics of markets constitute both the economic and the institutional environment of their origin. They also constitute the necessary context for their understanding and interpretation, as price bubbles rise and collapse within specific functional structures of an economic system.
Can purely predictive models be useful in investigating causal systems? I argue “yes”. Moreover, in many cases not only are they useful, they are essential. The alternative is to stick to models or mechanisms drawn from well-understood theory. But a necessary condition for explanation is empirical success, and in many cases in social and field sciences such success can only be achieved by purely predictive models, not by ones drawn from theory. Alas, the attempt to use theory to achieve explanation or insight without empirical success therefore fails, leaving us with the worst of both worlds—neither prediction nor explanation. Best go with empirical success by any means necessary. I support these methodological claims via case studies of two impressive feats of predictive modelling: opinion polling of political elections, and weather forecasting.
Marina Fiorato’s The Glassblower of Murano (2008) tells the story of Eleonora, a young woman who travels to Venice in search of her genealogical past and existential roots. Coming from London, Eleonora incarnates a “modern” outlook on what she assumes to be the timeless life and culture of Venice. At one point in the novel, admiring the old houses on the Canal Grande, Eleonora is “on fire with enthusiasm for this culture where the houses and the people kept their genetic essence so pure for millennia that they look the same now as in the Renaissance” (2008, 15). This discourse of pure origins and unbroken continuities is a fascinating fantasizing on characteristics that extend from the urban territory to the people who inhabit it. Within narratives centred on this notion, Italian culture, perceived as holding a privileged relation with history and the past, is often contrasted with the displacement and rootlessness that seem to characterize the modern places and people of England and North America. Through a discussion of two Anglo-American popular novels set in Italy, and several relocation narratives, this paper proposes an exploration of the notion according to which history is the force cementing the identities of societies perceived as less modern and frozen in a timeless dimension. From a point in time when the dialectics of history have been allegedly transcended, Anglo-American popular narratives observe Italy as a timeless, pre-modern other.