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Ilze Radoviča, Rūdolfs Bērziņs, Gustavs Latkovskis, Dāvids Fridmanis, Liene Ņikitina-Zaķe, Kārlis Ventiņš, Guna Ozola, Andrejs Ērglis and Jānis Kloviņš

., Thorogood, M., Watson, M. (2008). Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Review for Familial hypercholesterolaemia: The identification and management of adults and children with familial hypercholesterolaemia. London: National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care and Royal College of General Practitioners. Eden, E. R., Patel, D. D., Sun, X. M., Burden, J. J., Themis, M., Edwards, M., Lee, P., Neuwirth, C., Naoumova, R. P., Soutar, A. K. (2002). Restoration of LDL receptor function in cells from patients with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia by retroviral

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Ivo S. Petrov, Arman Sh. Postadzhiyan, Mariya P. Tokmakova, Lyudmila G. Kitova, Svetlin N. Tsonev, Janet Addison, Reneta T. Petkova and Vasil I. Lachev

REFERENCES 1. Tolonen H, Keil U, Ferrario M, et al. Prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypercholesterolaemia in 32 populations: results from the WHOMONICA Project. Int J Epidemiol 2005;34:181-92. 2. Cuchel M, Bruckert E, Ginsberg HN, et al. European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: new insights and guidance for clinicians to improve detection and clinical management. A position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia of the European

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Lyudmila G. Vladimirova-Kitova, Tania I. Deneva and Fedya P. Nikolov

;93:1334-8. 7. Paiker JE, Raal FJ, Veller M, et al. Cell adhesion molecules - can they be used to predict in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Clin Chim Acta 2000;293:105-13. 8. Petruzzeli L, Takami M, Humes HD. Structure and function of cell adhesion molecules. Am J Med 1999;106:764-76. 9. Deneva T, Vladimirova-Kitova L, Markova V, Tsvetkova Ts. Serum markers of endothelial activation in hypercholesterolemia. Sartce-Byal Drob 2003;4:23-30 (Bulgarian). 10. Menta JL. Statins: Understanding clinical use. Saunders; 2004

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Simona Ifrim, Cornelia Amalinei, Elena Cojocaru and Mioara Calipsoana Matei

:18-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06480.x 6. Zhang S, Zeng X, Ren M, Mao X, Qiao S. Novel metabolic and physiological function of branched chain amino acids: a review. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2017 Jan;8:10. DOI: 10.1186/s40104-016-0139-z 7. Cojocaru E, Zamfir C, Zamosteanu N, Trandafirescu M, Cotuţiu C. The effects of branched chain aminoacids on LDL-cholesterol in experimental animals subjected to dietary hypercholesterolemia. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2012 Jan-Mar;116(1):200-6. 8. Yang R, Dong J, Zhao H, Li H, Guo H

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Sunarti, Dianandha Septiana Rubi and Ahmad Hamim Sadewa

-Rejaie SS, Alroujayee AS. Ameliorative effects of rutin and ascorbic acid combination on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 7: 280–288, 2013. 8. Kaneto H, Matsuoka T . Role of pancreatic transcription factors in maintenance of mature β-Cell function. Int J Mol Sci 16: 6281-6297, 2015. 9. Xu G, Kaneto H, Laybutt DR et al . Downregulation of GLP-1 and GIP receptor expression by hyperglycemia: possible contribution to impaired incretin effects in diabetes. Diabetes 56: 1551-1558, 2007. 10. Silva LS, de

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Robert Nowak, Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Zarębska, Krzysztof Ficek and Paweł Cięszczyk

.J., Wiese M.D., O’Shea R.L., Pekarsky B., Review of the cost effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Pharmacoeconomics, 2013, 31 (5), 377-391, doi: 10.1007/s40273-013-0045-6. 29. Kantyka J., Herman D., Roczniok R., Kuba L., Effects of aqua aerobics on body composition, body mass, lipid profile, and blood count in middle-aged sedentary women. Hum Mov, 2015, 16 (1), 9-14, doi: 10.1515/humo-2015-0020. 30. Schultz Straatmann V., da Veiga G.V., Cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and indicators of

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Lyudmila Vladimirova-Kitova, Tania Deneva-Koicheva, Fedya Nikolov and Varban Ganev

References Lusis AJ, Mar R, Pajukanta P. Genetics of atherosclerosis. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2004;5: 189-218. Marks D, Thorogood M, Neil HA, Humphries SE. A review on the diagnosis, natural history and treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis 2003;168:1-14. Ganev VS. Mollecular genetic heterogeneity of the predisposition to atherosclerosis in Bulgaria. [dissertation]. Medical University: Sofia; 2003:68-70 (Bulgarian). Boev T, Kitova

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Abdurrahman Coskun, Mustafa Serteser and Ibrahim Unsal

Summary

Cholesterol biosynthesis is a complex pathway comprising more than 20 biochemical reactions. Although the final product created in the pathway is cholesterol, the intermediate products, such as ubiquinone and dolichol, also provide vital metabolic functions. Statins are HGM-CoA reductase inhibitors that stop the production of cholesterol by directly inhibiting the mevalonate production. Mevalonate is a precursor of two additional vital molecules, squalene and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). We hypothesized that inhibiting the cholesterol biosynthesis with statins for an extended duration may potentiate the oxidative stress, neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Our recommendation was to measure muscle enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and ubiquinone to monitor patients receiving the statins for prolonged periods of time.

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Pharrunrat Tanaviyutpakdee, Krongtong Yoovathaworn, Jintana Sirivarasai, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Pachara Panpunuan, Krittaya Petchpoung, Aninthita Tatsaneeyapant, Thunyachai Sura, Sming Kaojarern and Piyamit Sritara

Oxidative stress can play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer [ 1 ]. Reactive species are generated endogenously, and from exogenous stimuli including xenobiotics. These reactive species are controlled by various cellular antioxidant systems [ 2 , 3 ]. Hypercholesterolemia can induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion, via enzymes including the oxidase for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and xanthine oxidase, and other sources of ROS from mitochondria [ 4 ]. Some investigators have

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Arman Postadzhiyan, Anna Tzontcheva, Ivan Kehajov, Stanimir Kyurkchiev, Margarita Apostolova and Bojidar Finkov

on inflammatory markers in plasma J Intern Med 2002; 251: 338-47. Jilma B, Joukhadar C, Derhasching U, et al. Levels of adhesion molecules do not decrease after 3 months of statin therapy in moderate hypercholesterolemia. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003; 104: 189-93. Blanco-Colio LM, Martin-Ventura JL, de Teresa E, Farsang C, Gaw A, et all. of the ACTFAST investigators Elevated ICAM-1 and MCP-1 plasma levels in subjects at high cardiovascular risk are diminished by atorvastatin treatment. Atorvastatin on Inflammatory Markers