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A. Walicka and B. Iwanowska-Chomiak

-mechanism of action . – Med. Inflam., vol.7, pp.183-193. [8] Higuchi T. (1960): Physical chemical analysis of percutaneous absorption process from creams and ointments . – J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem., vol.11, pp.85-97. [9] Higuchi T. (1961): Rate of release of medicaments from ointment basis containing drugs in suspension . – J. Pharm. Sci., vol.50, pp.874-875. [10] Michaels A.S., Chandraskeran S.K. and Shaw J.E. (1975): Drug permeation through human skin: theory and in vitro experimental measurement. – Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng., vol.21, No.5, pp.985

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Oliver Pabst

examples. This paper focuses on a 4-memristor bridge circuit (similar to a Wheatstone bridge but based on transversal memristor models instead of resistors, see Fig. 1a ) that was used for synaptic weight programming in [ 15 ]. The same circuit was used for the generation of nth-order harmonics and frequency doubling in [ 16 ] and as full-wave rectifier in [ 17 ]. Here this circuit (in a two memristor configuration, see [ 17 ] and Fig. 1b ) is realized with human skin (see Fig. 1c .) Human skin exhibits non-linear electrical properties if the applied stimulus is

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Ada Stelmakienė, Kristina Ramanauskienė and Vitalis Briedis

the human skin in vitro, Evid. Based Compl. Altern. Med. (2013) Article ID 958717; DOI: 10.1155/2013/958717. 10. T. Kezutyte, T. Drevinskas, A. Maruska, R. Rimdeika and V. Briedis, Study of tolnaftate release from fatty acids containing ointment and penetration into human skin ex vivo, Acta Pol. Pharm. 68 (2011) 965-973. 11. R.-K. Chang, A. Raw, R. Lionberger and L. Yu, Generic development of topical dermatologic products: Formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products, AAPS J. 15 (2013) 41

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David Basketter, Dagmar Jírova and Helena Kandárová

References Basketter DA. (1994). Strategic hierarchical approaches in acute toxicity testing. Toxicol in Vitro 8 : 855-859. Basketter DA, Whittle E, Griffi ths HA, York M. (1994a). The identifi cation and classification of skin irritation hazard by human patch test. Food Chem Toxico : 32 : 769-775. Basketter DA, Whittle E, Chamberlain M. (1994b). Identifi cation of irritationand corrosion hazards to skin: an alternative strategy to animal testing. Food Chem Toxicol 32 : 539

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Hanna Piotrzkowska, Jerzy Litniewski, Elżbieta Szymańska and Andrzej Nowicki

Med.&Biol., 21 , 161-170. Molthen R., Shankar P., Reid J. (1998), Comparison of the Rayleigh and K-distribution models using in vivo breast and liver tissue , Ultrasound in Med.&Biol., 24 , 93-100. Piotrzkowska H., Litniewski J., Nowicki A., Szymańska E. (2009), Use of quantitative ultrasound to measure acoustic properties of human skin , Archives of Acoustics, 34 , 471-480. Raju B., Srinivasan M. (2002), Statistics of envelope of high-frequency ultrasonic backscatter from human skin

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Zorica Gajinov, Milan Matić, Sonja Prćić and Verica Đuran

References 1. Kollias N. The interaction of light with the skin. In: Wilhelm K, Elsner P, Berardesca E, Maibach H, editors, Bioengineering of the skin: skin imaging and analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2007. p. 222-8. 2. Anderson R, Parrish JA. The optics of human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1981;77:13-9 3. Igarashi T, Nishino K, Nayar SK. The appearance of human skin. Technical Report: CUCS-024-05 [cited 21.01.2011.] Available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10

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Elga Mozeika, Mara Pilmane and Janis Kisis

Psoriasis are Accompanied by Epidermal Overexpression of MMP-2 and its Inhibitor TIMP-2 // J Invest Dermatol, 2000 Nov; 115(5):771-777 Gudjonsson J. E., Elder J. T. Psoriasis // In: Wolff K., Goldsmith L. A., Katz S. I., Gilchrest B. A., Paller A. S., Leffell D. J. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008; 169-193 Harder J., Schröder J. M. Psoriatic Scales: a Promising Source for the Isolation of Human Skin-derived Antimicrobial Proteins // J Leukoc Biol, 2005; 77

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Santo Scalia, Valentina Trotta and Anna Bianchi

. Der Marderosian, G. Hanson, T. Medwick, N. Popovich, R. Schnaare, J. Schwartz and H. White), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 2000, pp. 836-848. 8. S. E. Belo, L. R. Gaspar, P. M. B. G. Maia Campos and J.-P. Marty, Skin penetration of epigallocathechin-3-gallate and quercetin from green tea and ginkgo biloba extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations, Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 22 (2009) 299-304; DOI: 10.1159/000241299. 9. W. Wisuitiprot, A. Somsiri, K. Ingkaninan and N. Waranuch, In vitro human skin penetration and cutaneous

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Giordano Paola, Bennett C Rachel and Driessen Bernd

REFERENCES 1. Reid J, Nolan AM, Hughes JML, Lascelles D, Pawson P, Scott EM: Development of the short-form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF) and derivation of an analgesic intervention score. Anim Welf 2007, 16:97–104. 2. de Erausquin GA, Pitra JC, Rey RB, Faiman CP, Baratti CM: A novel non-invasive method to measure skin potential response: Some pharmacological evidence. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1989, 11:765–770. 3. D'Angelo D: (947): Skin potential as a correlate of moderate to severe chronic pain - A case report. J Pain

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A. Walicka and B. Iwanowska-Chomiak

transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system . – J. Microencapsulation, vol.32, No.4, pp.358-363. [6] Milington P.F. and Wilkinson R. (1983): Skin . – Cambridge University Press. [7] Cross S.E. and Roberts M.S. (2004): Physical enhancement of transdermal drug application: Is delivery technology keeping up with pharmaceutical development ? – Curr. Drug Deliv. vol.1. No.1, pp.81-92. [8] Grassi M. (2008): Membranes in drug delivery . – In: Handbook of Membrane Separations: Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Food and Biotechnological Applications