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Political transition from autocracy to democracy may produce paradoxes. Political succession in Indonesia may be the case in point. The anxiety over massive demonstration, riots and violence often over shadow political successions at the local, regional as well as national level support the above proposition. This article represents a research-based report on one of the most controversial collective violence relates to the monetary crisis 1997-1998 which brought the termination of autocratic era of Soeharto’s regime in May 1998. Since February 1998, in the Regency of Banyuwangi broke out a spiral collective action among the people. Hundreds of local-religious teachers are reportedly to have been killed by an undercover actors called “ninja.” All these phenomena have led to unanswered questions why the massacre against they the Master of Sihir is justified? What do they perceive of the violence? Who did it and how? Who, why and how they do it. As the violence continues almost throughout the year, the report is worth delivering. The aim of this article is to provide a research-based theoretical answers to the question of the nature of violence, the actors, the targets, and modus operandi of the violence. The research was conducted from 2002 to 2005 in the Regency of Banyuwangi and the surrounding areas. The method by which the research was exploratory in kind. Data was collected through snow balling technique while the perspective of the analysis is political sociology. The result shows hundreds of villagers have become victims of the violence most of whom, are village dwellers who are alleged the Master of Sihir. Most of the actors of the violence, if not all, are neighbours who share the believe that magic is benevolent while at the same time is malevolent. Accordingly, they perceive of those who were named the Master of Sihir paradoxically as foe and friend at the sane time. The violence vary degree starting from destruction of house or property, social isolation, expel from the village, and assassination. In conclusion, the chaotic political transition has given a room for the society to produce and reproduce violence. People may say that any violence is against human rights but, for this people, not to the Master of Sihir. For them, violation against the Master of Sihir is socially and politically justified, fair and acceptable.
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Khaldon Yosouf, Hadj Latroch, Laurence Schacher, Dominique C. Adolphe, Emilie Drean and Véronique Zimpfer
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Since the mid-19th century until the 1930s, the Czech physical education and the scout movements formed a platform for the propagation of a specific somatology and health science discourse connected with the issues of morality, national awareness and political views. They strived to create an integral Czech personality subject to the imperative of the bourgeois values and norms. The stress was on the set of rules, diligence, commitment to the benefit of the nation, moderation, temperance, and obedience, while laziness and conspicuous revelry were, in this context, condemned. Disobedience, immorality and improper use of powers were perceived as a real threat to the national community and later to the so-called First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938). Hence, activities of both the physical education organisations and the Scout Movement, became a form of national defence against harmful influences. As a result of their effort to impact the society as a whole, these activities became a mobilization tool which promoted both physical and moral norms: the cultivation of the body became a moral duty for all members of the nation. The disapproval, based on political and generational reasons, towards the bourgeois morality hegemony and later, of the state paternalism (for instance by the non-organised scout-tramps), resulted in attempts to condemn all those who refused the social dictate and the state’s control.
Speed of movement is fundamental to the outcome of many human actions. Protective motions, trip and fall recovery ( van den Bogert et al., 2002 ) as well as sporting actions may all be more successful if the performer is able to move at greater speed with minimal loss of movement accuracy. In sport, athletes who are able to move faster than their opponents may complete a given task more quickly, or use this advantage to reduce the opponent’s time to react and respond.
It is within the sporting arena that most effort has been focused on how to
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Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen, Eleonora A. Lundell and Marja-Liisa Honkasalo
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