References Bennison J. 2001. Protected herbs: Control of glasshouse whitefly and leafhoppers within IPM programmes. http://www.hdc.org.uk/project/protected-herbs-control-glasshousewhitefly-and-leafhoppers-within-ipm-programmes-4 [Accessed: April 15, 2013]. Blackman R.L., Eastop V.F. 2000. Aphids on the World’s Crops. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 414 pp. Blackman R.L., Eastop V.F. 2006. Aphids on the World’s Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs. Vol. 1 and 2. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England
Magdalena Lubiarz, Wojciech Goszczyński and Elżbieta Cichocka
., Fard S.S., Tajbakhsh M., Salehzadeh H., Alahyary P. 2008. The potential of using insecticidal properties of medicinal plants against insect pests. Pakistan J. Biol .Sci. 11 (10): 1380-1384. Kłyś M. 2004. Feeding inhibitors in pest control: effect of herb additions to food on the population dynamics of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Coleoptera, Bostrychidae). Pol. J. Ecol. 52 (4): 575-581. Kłyś M. 2006a. The influence of chosen herb species on the population of saw-toothed grain beetles Oryzaephilus surina-mensis L
Maria Pobożniak and Sobolewska Anna
Biodiversity of Thrips Species (Thysanoptera) on Flowering Herbs in Cracow, Poland
Thrips specimens were collected from 2004 to 2006 from the Herb Collection of the Faculty of Horticulture, the Agricultural University in Cracow, Poland and from 2006 to 2008 from the Botanical Garden in Cracow, Poland. We collected 16,058 adult thrips belonging to 22 Thysanoptera taxa from the flowers and inflorescences of 37 species of herbs from both of the collections. Thrips species composition infesting the flowers and inflorescences of herbs were very similar and not dependent on the plant species and the area of research. Only the participation of particular species differed. The prevailing polyphagous species connected with flowers were: Thrips fuscipennis, Thrips flavus, Frankliniella intonsa, Thrips albopilosus and Thrips major. Also, a high number of Thrips tabaci and random species connected with grass as well as predatory species Aeolothrips were found. The flowers of Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Nepeta cataria and Arnica montana were the most numerously infested by adult thrips.
Anna Malm, Anna Glowniak-Lipa, Izabela Korona-Glowniak and Tomasz Baj
Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.
The paper describes basic determinants of the medical plant cultivation in Polish agriculture. The author discussed economic background of the introduction of these plants indicating the role of pharmaceutical industry in herb usage. Then, there is a presentation of results of the survey study carried out among farmers from the Wielkopolska region. Approximately 10% of the farms cultivate medicinal plants but more than 50% declare some interest in this kind of production, what indicates a big potential. Farmers think that herbs are economically attractive crops if the sale is guaranteed and the price is satisfactory. The demand for medicinal plants is developing and expanding for e.g. dietary supplements and other health-promoting products. Therefore, it can be concluded that cultivation of medicinal plants is the prospective direction of agricultural production and an important element of additional income of Polish farmers.
Biljana Kaličanin, Dragan Velimirović, Ivana Arsić and Sofija Đorđević
References 1. Kirmani MZ, Mohiuddin S, Naz F, Naqvi I, Zahir E. Determination of some toxic and essential trace metals in some medicinal and edible plants of Karachi city. J Basic Appl Sci 2011; 7(2): 89-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2011.07.02.03 2. Arpadjan S, Celik G, Taskesen S, Gücer S. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in medicinal herbs and their fractionation. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 48:2871-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.027 3. Gomez RM, Cerutti S, Sombra L, Silva FM, Martinez DL
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Czyżewska and Iwona Markowska-Daniel
, 547 554. 11. Markowska-Daniel I. Stimulation of immune response with a natural and chemical immunostimulators in the treatment and prophylaxis. Med Weter 1991, 47 , 306 310. 12. Pomorska-Mól M., Kwit K.: Adjuvant properties of herbs. Med Weter 2011, 67 , 449 452. 13. Radko L., Cybulski W.: Application of silymarin in human and animal medicine. J Pre-Clin Clin Res 2007, 1 , 22 26. 14. Rajput Z.I., Hu S., Xiao C., Arijo A.: Adjuvant effects of saponins on animals immune responses. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
Magdalena Lubiarz and Krzysztof Musik
Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60: 83–105. Holzinger W.E., Seljak G. 2001. New records of planthoppers and leafhoppers from Slovenia, with a checklist of hitherto recorded species (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Entomologica Slovenica 9 (1): 39–66. Available on: http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/actaentslov_9_0039-0066.pdf [Accessed: December 15, 2014] Lubiarz M., Goszczyński W., Cichocka E. 2013. Invertebrates inhabiting culinary herbs grown under cover. Journal of Plant Protection Research 53 (4): 333–337. DOI: 10.2478/jppr-2013-0050 Maczey N
therapies (e.g., chiropractic, massage, reflexology), mind-based interventions and spiritual medicine (e.g., prayer, hypnotherapy, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong), biologically based therapy (e.g., diet supplement and Herbs), energy therapies (e.g., magnets, Reiki, pulsed electric field), procedures (e.g., acupuncture, colon cleansing, mineral baths, chelation, hydrotherapy), and miscellaneous (e.g., copper bracelets, snake oil, leech therapy, dimethyl sulfoxide, venoms, exercise). A few of them are based on evidence. The manuscript reviewed evidence on CAM in various rheumatic
Ivan Kosalec, Josipa Cvek and Siniša Tomić
medicines. Chemosphere 2003;52:1361-71. Ernst E. Harmless herbs? A review of the recent literature. Am J Med 1998;104:170-8. Iten F, Reichling J, Saller R, Unerwunschte Wirkungen und Wechselwirkungen von Phytotherapeutika [Adverse effects and interactions of phytotherapeutic drugs, in German]. Ther Umsch 2002;59:283-91. Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare of the Council of Europe (EDQM). Harmonized microbiological methods: 2.6.12.; 2.6.13; 5.1.4., In: European