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Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Renata Gasek, Marek Michalik, Janusz Dańko and Tadeusz Plaskota
6. References Baba, A., & Kaya, A. (2004). Leaching characteristics of fly ash from thermal power plants of Soma and Tunçbilek, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 91 , 171-181. DOI: 10.1023/B:EMAS.0000009234.42446.d3. Bartoňová, L., Čech, B., Ruppenthalová, L., Majvelderová, V., Juchelková, D., & Klika, Z. (2012). Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 24, 1624-1629. DOI: 10.1016/S1001-0742(11)60981-9. Bogush, A. A
Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla, Sebastian Szopa and Czesława Rosik-Dulewska
Srodowiska , 33 (1), 13 (in Polish).  Baig J.A., Kazi T.G., Arai M.B., Shah A.Q., Sarfraz R.A., Afridi H.I., Kandhro M.K., Jamali G.A. & Khan S. (2009). Arsenic fractionation in sediments of different origins using BCR sequential and single extraction methods, Journal of Hazardous Materials , 167, 1-3, 745.  Beniamin M.M. & Leckie I.O. (1981). Multiple-site adsorption of Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide, Journal of Colloid Interface Science , 1, 79.  Boughiet A., Proix N., Billon G., Recout P. & Ouddane B. (2007). Environmental Impacts of
Agnieszka Gałuszka and Zdzisław Migaszewski
References Bäckström, M., Karlsson, S., Bäckman, L., Folkeson, L., & Lind, B. (2004). Mobilization of heavy metals by deicing salts in a roadside environment. Water Research, 38 , 720-732. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2003.11.006. Baize, D., & Sterckeman, T. (2001). Of the necessity of knowledge of the natural pedo-geochemical background content in the evaluation of the contamination of soils by trace elements. Science of the Total Environment, 264 , 127-139. DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00615-X
Andrzej Kuranc, Tomasz Słowik, Paweł Krzaczek and Grzegorz Maj
The article presents calculations of unit fumes emission made based on the measurements of the fumes composition during a load test. The test was carried out with the use of a movable dynamometric stand adjusted for testing agricultural tractors by power take-off shaft. Calculations of unit emission were made based on the assumed flow of air sucked by an engine and the measured composition of fumes emitted during the load test. Results of tests and analyses supply information on the mass of particle matter and the selected gas elements emitted by an engine working under the load which was related to simultaneous determination of the exploitation characteristic of an engine. The presented methodology may be helpful at evaluation of impact of farm tractors on the environment within the hazardous fume components emitted by them.
J. Dobroczyńska and K. Grabas
Nowadays, a good deal of research is focusing on the development of new analytical procedures for detection of hazardous agents, such as bacteria, harmful pollutants, toxic vapors, and many others. The majority of the research is aimed at developing new sensors and analytical equipment. This paper demonstrates a simple construction of an ammonia sensor based on commercially available electronic connectors with active elements from polyaniline. The main goal of this research is to present the simplicity of sensor manufacturing, without the need for advanced apparatus such as electropolymerization or electrospinning set-up. The active element of the proposed sensor is composed of polyaniline synthesized in situ on the surface of conductive glue. The layer of the conductive glue is a key element in this sensor as it protects the metallic pin against destruction during in situ synthesis of polyaniline (acidic and oxidizing conditions).
Ida Jākobsone, Sanita Zute, Māra Bleidere, Ināra Kantāne and Vadims Bartkevičs
REFERENCES Alexander, P. D., Alloway, B. J., Dourado, A. M. (2006). Genotypic variation in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables. Environment Pollution, 144 , 736–745. Ali, Mohamed, H. H., Al-Qahtani, K. M. (2012). Assessment of some heavy metals in vegetables, cereals and fruits in Saudi Arabian markets. Egypt. J. Aquatic Res., 38 , 31–37. Anonymous (1996). Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health . WHO, 343 pp. Anonymous (1999). AOAC official method 999.11. Determination of lead
Stefan Góralczyk and Elżbieta Uzunow
Rare earth metals including yttrium and europium are one of several critical raw materials, the use of which ensures the development of the so-called high technology. The possibility of their recovery in Europe is limited practically only to secondary materials such as phosphogypsum and electronic waste.
The article presents the results of our research concerning the development of recovery technology of yttrium and europium from luminophore CRT used lamps. It describes the principle of separation of elements and the test results of cleaning the concentrate. It was shown that the costs of preparing the concentrate according to the proposed technology are lower than the phosphogypsum processing technology and the composition of the resulting product does not contain hazardous substances.
Cosmin-Liviu Şchiopu and Nicoleta Ionac
Icing - a risk factor in aviation. Case study: The plane crash in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) on 20.01.2014. Icing is a potentially harmful weather phenomenon for flight safety. Icing, irrespective of its forms, has a negative impact on all aviation activities since it severely impedes the aerodynamic properties of an aircraft, sometimes to such an extent that flying and landing may become impossible. Icing is a serious weather threat to aviation and may ultimately lead to deadly events. One such unfortunate event took place in the Western (Apuseni) Mountains on the 20.01.2014, when an aircraft which was transporting a medical team on a humanitarian mission, simply crashed down in the area of the Western (Apuseni) Mountains, at around 4:00 pm local time. The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages or official elements and information from that very day. All these materials show that the flight route and the airdrome of destination were under the influence of a front which accounted for very poor meteorological conditions. On such bad weather, the flight was practically doomed to failure since low snow and sleet-bearing clouds were hanging down over the mountaintops. Flying straight through these clouds made any landmarks impossible to be seen and, furthermore, lack of orientation created false perceptions which led to fatal misjudgements and errors.
W. Krason and J. Malachowski
Dynamic analyses of a transport aircraft landing gear are conducted to determine the effort of such a complex system and provide capabilities to predict their behaviour under hazardous conditions. This kind of investigation with the use of numerical methods implementation is much easier and less expensive than stand tests. Various 3D models of the landing gear part are defined for the multistage static FE analysis. A complete system of the main landing gear was mapped as a deformable 3D numerical model for dynamic analysis with the use of LS-Dyna code. In this 3D deformable FE model, developed in a drop test simulation, the following matters were taken into consideration: contact problems between collaborating elements, the phenomena of energy absorption by a gas-liquid damper placed in the landing gear and the response of the landing gear during the touchdown of a flexible wheel with the ground. The results of numerical analyses for the selected drop tests and the results from the experiments carried out on a real landing gear were used for verification of FE models and a methodology of the landing gear dynamics analysis. The results obtained from the various simulations of the touchdown have proved the effectiveness of the 3D numerical model and how many problems can be solved in the course of only one numerical run, e.g. geometric and material nonlinearities, a question of contact between the mating components, investigation of the landing gear kinematics, investigation of the energy dissipation problem in the whole system and the stresses influence on the structure behaviour, which can appear in some elements due to overload.