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How small and constrained is the genome size of angiosperm woody species

. RAMAWAT and G. NANDWANI (1995): Rapid in vitro multiplication of jujube through mature stem explants. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 43: 75-77. MEHRA, P. N. (1972): Cytogenetical evolution of hardwoods. Nucleus 15: 64-83. MEHRA, P. N., A. S. HANS and T. S. SAREEN (1972): Cytomorphology of Himalayan Fagaceae. Silvae Genet 21: 102-109. MEHRA, P. N. (1976): Cytology of Himalayan hardwoods. Sree Saraswaty Press, Calcutta. MEHRA, P. N., T. S. SAREEN and P. K. KHOSLA (1972): Cytological studies on Himalayan

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Bud Removal Affects Shoot, Root, and Callus Development of Hardwood Populus Cuttings

. COYLE, D. R., T. E. NEBEKER, E. R. HART and W. J. MATTSON, JR. (2005): Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively-managed hardwood forest systems. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 50: 1-29. COYLE, D. R., J. D. MCMILLIN, R. B. Hall and E. R. HART (2003): Effects of cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval defoliation, clone, and season on Populus foliar phagostimulants. Environ. Entomol. 32: 452-462. DESROCHERS, A. and B. R. THOMAS (2003): A comparison of pre-planting treatments on hardwood cuttings of four

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Date of Shoot Collection, Genotype, and Original Shoot Position Affect Early Rooting of Dormant Hardwood Cuttings of Populus

compendium. HortScience 11: 348-357. COLEMAN, G. D., J. M. ENGLERT, T. H. H. CHEN and L. H. FUCHIGAMI (1993): Physiological and environmental requirements for poplar (Populus deltoides) bark storage protein degradation. Plant Physiol. 102: 53-59. CRAM, W. H. and C. H. LINDQUIST (1982): Refrigerated storage for hardwood cuttings of willow and poplar. Tree Plant. Not. 33: 3-5. CUNNINGHAM, T. W. and R. E. FARMER, JR. (1984): Seasonal variation in propagability of dormant balsam poplar cuttings. Plant Prop. 30: 13

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Colonization of hardwood and pine wood chips by mites (Acari), with particular reference to oribatid mites (Oribatida)

Abstract

The study was conducted in the years 2011–2012, in a forest nursery in Białe Błota (Bydgoszcz Forest District). The experiment was established in a 20 m wide belt of trees within a 110 years old stand growing on mixed fresh coniferous forest site. Litter bags containing hardwood and pine wood chips were placed on mineral soil of microplots and covered with a 5 cm layer of litter. The pattern of chips colonization differed between mites belonging to different orders. Predatory Mesostigmata colonized hardwood chips gradually but they were present in high numbers in pine chips from the beginning of the study. Abundance of Actinedida fluctuated within the two-year study cycle. Contrary to that, oribatid mites, which were a predominant mite type, colonized both types of chips gradually, while preferring the pine ones. At the end of the study, the structure of mite communities and mite abundance in pine chips were more similar to forest soil than in hardwood chips. The experiment demonstrated that pine chips provided most oribatid mites with more favorable living conditions than hardwood chips, as they were colonized at a quicker rate and by a greater number of species. The most abundant oribatid mite in both substrates was a eurytopic Tectocepheus velatus that showed no clear preferences towards either of the substrates. Majority of oribatid mites, e.g. Oppiella nova, Metabelba pulverulenta, Oribatula tibialis, Chamobates schuetzi, Galumna lanceata, preferred pine chips. The only species with clear preference for hardwood chips was Eniochthonius minutissimus. A comparison of usefulness of hardwood and pine wood chips in revitalization of degraded soils based on bioindication approach indicated higher suitability of pine chips that are also more available in Polish forests.

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Investigation of the Applicability of Multi-Operational Logging Machines in Hardwood Stands

Abstract

- As a result of new developments in technology, harvesters may no longer be confined to softwood forests only. Several studies carried out in black locust, Turkey oak and beech stands have justified the use of these machines in hardwood stands. Evaluating the results of the cost and time analyses we concluded that harvesters are more efficient in several cases compared to traditional felling with chainsaws.

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Soil Temperature and Precipitation Affect the Rooting Ability of Dormant Hardwood Cuttings of Populus

. Part I, Chapter 8. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada. CASTELAN-ESTRADA, M., P. VIVIN and J. P. GAUDILLERE 2002): Allometric relationships to estimate seasonal above-ground vegetative and reproductive biomass of Vitis vinifera L. Ann. Bot. 89: 401-408. DAVIES, F. T., JR. and H. T. HARTMANN (1988): The physiological basis of adventitious root formation. Acta Hort. 227: 113-120. DESROCHERS, A. and B. R. THOMAS (2003): A comparison of pre-planting treatments on hardwood

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Photodegradation of Timber of Three Hardwood Species Caused by Different Light Sources

-192 OHKOSHI, M.J. (2002): FTIR-PAS study of light-induced changes in the surface of acetylated or polyethylene glycol-impregnated wood. J. Wood Sci. 48: 394-401 OLTEAN, L. - HANSMANN, C. - NÉMETH, R. - TEISCHINGER, A. (2010): Wood surface discolouration of three hungarian hardwood species due to simulated indoor sunlight exposure. Wood Research 55(1):49-58 OTA, M. - OGATA, H. - JONO, Y. - HIROTA, K. - ABE K. (1997): Light-induced color changes of acetylated veneers of kiri (Paulowniatomentosa Steud.). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 43: 785

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Use of Belowground Growing Degree Days to Predict Rooting of Dormant Hardwood Cuttings of Populus

Scientific and Technical, Essex, England. FARMER, R. E., JR., FREITAG, M. and GARLICK, K. (1989): Genetic variance and “C” effects in balsam poplar rooting. Silvae Genet. 38: 62-65. FEGE, A. S. and BROWN, G. N. (1984): Carbohydrate distribution in dormant Populus shoots and hardwood cuttings. For. Sci. 30: 999-1010. HAISSIG, B. E., DAVIS, T. D. and RIEMENSCHNEIDER, D. E. (1992): Researching the controls of adventitious rooting. Physiol. Plant. 84: 310-317. HANSEN, E. A. (1986): Planting date affects survival

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Using putrescine to increase the rooting ability of hardwood cuttings of the peach × almond hybrid GF677

and the role of polyamines as an early marker for rooting ability. In Altman S, Waisel D (eds.): Biology of root formation and development. Plenum Publishing Co., NewYork, pp. 65-73. Skoog F, Armstrong DJ (1970): Cytikinin. An Rev Plant Physiol 21: 359-384. Smith MA, Davies PJ, Reid JB (1985): Role of polyamines in gibberellin induced internode growth in peas. Plant Physiol 78: 92-99. Tajbakhsh M, Korkan M, Ghiyasi M (2009): Effect of timing on callus formation and rooting ability in IBA-treated hardwood stem cuttings

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Influence of Different Soil Substrates, Planting Time and Stem Cuttings Type on Vegetative Propagation and Growth Characteristics of Vitex Agnus-Castus L. / Vplyv Rôznych Pôdnych Substrátov, Času Výsadby a Typov Stonkových Odrezkov na Vegetatívne Rozmnožovanie a Rastové Vlastnosti Vitex Agnus-Castus L.

time and different concentrations of IBA in rooting hardwood cuttings of Kiwi Actinidia chinesis . In: Tishreen University Journal for Studies and Scientific Research - Biological Science, vol. 28, 2006, no. 3. MohyEldeen, N. E. E. 2009. Improvement of Propagation by Hardwood Cuttings With or Without Using Plastic Tunnel in ( Quisqualis indica ). In: Advances in Biological Research, vol. 3, 2009, no. 1-2, p. 16-18. RASUL, R. H. - SHAKR, M. - KHALEED, H. 1984. Studies on the growth and flowering of Buddleia variables and effect of

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