References 1. Lo Russo L, Fedele S, Guiglia R, et al. Diagnostic pathways and clinical significance of desquamative gingivitis. J Periodontol. 2008;79:4-24. 2. Leao J, Ingafon M, Khan A, Scully C, Porter S. Desquamative gingivitis: retrospective analysis of disease associations of a large cohort. Oral Diseases. 2008;14:556-560. 3. Lo Russo L, Fierro G, Guiglia R, et al. Epidemiology of desquamative gingivitis: evaluation of 125 patients and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol. 2009
Monica Monea, Tudor Hănțoiu, Alexandra Stoica, Ramona Vlad and Alexandru Sitaru
T. Hănțoiu, Adriana Monea, Luminița Lazăr and Liana Hănțoiu
brushing: effect on bleeding, gingivitis and plaque. J Clin Dent. 2012;23:57-63. 16. NAM, Honnequin - Hoenderdos NL, Berchier CD, Slot DC, Lyle DM, van der Weijden GA. The effect of differeni interdental cleaning devices on gingival bleeding. J Int Acad Periodontol, 2011;13: 2-10. 17. Goyal CR, Lyle DM, Quaquish JG, Schuller R. Evaluation of the plaque removal efficacy of a water flosser compared to string floss in adults after a single use. J Clin Dent 2013,24:37-42.
Mansur Rahnama, Łukasz Czupkałło, Maryla Kozicka-Czupkałło and Michał Łobacz
Among many substances used in clinical diagnosis, such as peripheral blood, gum homogenate, saliva and gingival pocket fluid, it is the latter that seems to bean extremely valuable diagnostic and research material. Identification of mediators in gingival crevicular fluid, both in the healthy gingival fissure, as well as in pathological periodontal pockets can be a valuable supplement to the initial diagnosis and describe the mechanism of gumorperiodontal diseases.
Changes in the concentration of individual components in the gingival crevicular fluid may be used to assess the severity of periodontal disease.
There are numerous methods for collecting fluid from the sulcus described: Micro-capillary drainage, micropipette drainage, rinsing pocket or drainage with the use of methylcellulose strips and then reading with Periotron.
Gingival fluid is composed mainly of blood electrolytes and organic molecules, i.e. albumins, globulins, lipoproteins or fibrinogen and cellular components as well as peptides, bacteria and enzymes.
Therefore gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is treated as a window for noninvasive analysis of periodontitis, taking into account indicators and markers of connective tissue and bone destruction.
Maya Rashkova and Antoaneta Toncheva
. Periodontology 2000, 2009;51(5):25-37. Marcotte H, Lavoie MC. Oral microbial ecology and the role of salivary immunoglobulin A. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 1998; 62(1):71-109. Taubman MA, Smith DJ. Significance of salivary antibody in dental disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993; 694:202-15. Ciancio SG. Current status of indices of gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1986;13(6):375-8. Rateitschak KH, Wolt HF, Hassel TM. Color atlas of periodontology. Theime; 1985
infection, leading to adverse effects on health. This article summarizes the treatment strategies for systemic diseases that cause or aggravate oral focal infection. 2 Drug-induced gingivitis due to long-term use of oral drugs Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia refers to the increase in gingival fiber composition due to the longterm use of certain drugs, the most common of which include the antiepileptic drug phenytoin (Dilantin), cyclosporine, and the calcium channel antagonist nifedipine (Adalat). In vitro culture showed that phenytoin sodium stimulates the mitotic
Berrak Guven and Cigdem Turer
Background/Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and prolidase levels in subjects with different periodontal status. Material and Methods: Fifteen periodontitis, fifteen gingivitis and fifteen healthy subject were included. GCF samples were collected from participants. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index was recorded. ALP and prolidase levels were determined in GCF by spectrophotometrically. Results: Higher values of ALP were found in periodontitis compared with gingivitis and healthy control (p<0.001). The values of prolidase were lower in periodontitis than healthy control (p<0.05). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between clinical parameters and ALP levels (p<0.001). There is no significant correlation between clinical parameters and prolidase levels (p>0.05). Additionally, no significant correlation was detected between ALP and prolidase (r= -0.309, p>0.05). Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that low prolidase level in periodontitis was not associated with ALP and clinical parameters, which represent periodontal destruction and inflammation.
Hulya Sariaslan Goleli, Murat Akkaya and Melike Camgoz
References 1. Socransky SS and Haffeje AD. Microbial mechanisms in the pathogenesis of destructive periodontal diseases; a critical assessment. J Periodontal Res, 1991;26:195-212. 2. Cohen-Cole S, Cogen R, Stevens A, Kirk K, Gaitan E, Hain J, et al. Psycho-social, endocrine and immune factors in acute ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth). Psychosom Med, 1981;43: 91. 3. Arowojolu MO, Onyeaso CO, Dosumu EB, Idaboh GK. Effect of academic stress on periodontal health in Nigerians. Odontostomatol Trop, 2006;29:9-13. 4. Becker R, Karp CL, Becker
Sittisak Honsawek and Wannee Unwerawattana
Background: Stem cell factor is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by several cell types including fibroblasts, bone marrow stromal cells, mast cells, and endothelial cells. In addition, stem cell factor is an important hematopoietic growth factor, which binds to and activates the ligand for the tyrosine kinase-type receptor c-kit. Objectives: Analyze concentration of stem cell factor within gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in both periodontal health and disease and to determine the correlation of stem cell factor in GCF and inflammatory status of periodontal tissues. Materials and methods: Forty-five subjects (aged 24 to 75 years) were classified into the following three groups according to their periodontal tissue status as group I (clinically healthy gingiva with no loss of attachment), group II (gingivitis with no attachment loss), and group III (periodontitis). GCF samples collected from each patient were examined for stem cell factor level using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: The maximum level of stem cell factor in GCF was obtained for group III (71.8±7.8 pg/g protein), and the lowest mean stem cell factor concentration in GCF was observed for group I (22.1±7.3 pg/g protein). The GCF stem cell factor level of patients in group III was statistically higher than that in group II (p <0.04) and group I (p <0.001). In addition, the mean GCF levels of stem cell factor in group II (48.1±7.5 pg/g protein) were significantly higher than those in group I (p <0.02). There was a positive correlation between stem cell factor in GCF and gingival inflammation index (r=0.59, p <0.001) Conclusion: GCF levels of stem cell factor increased in parallel with the severity of periodontal disease. Its levels in GCF could be potentially useful as a biochemical marker of periodontal inflammation and the host response.
Renata Vidaković, Stjepan Špalj, Mladen Šlaj, Martina Šlaj and Višnja Katić
for schoolchildren with mixed and with permanent dentition, Estimation of the population share that could not receive orthodontic treatment due to the presence of caries and/or gingivitis. 2 Sample and Methods This epidemiological cross-sectional survey involved a total of 2652 children and young adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia (5% of Zagreb school children) ( 18 ). Subjects were between 7 and 19 years of age (median 15, inter-quartile range 12-16), and 52.4% of them were females. The initial sample size was considered adequate concerning the following
Nadezhda G. Mitova, Maya R. Rashkova, Hristina L. Popova and Anton S. Kozarov
. Gingival health and gingivitis development during puberty. A 4-vear longitudinal study. J Clin Periodontol 1989;16(7):451-6. 6. Kumar P. Sex and the subgingival microbiome: do female sex steroids affect periodontal bacteria? Periodontology 2000 2013;61(1):103-24. 7. Ning-Yan Y, Quan Z, Jin-Lu L, et al. Progression of periodontal inflammation in adolescents is associated with increased number of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Int J Paediatr Dent 2013;24(3):226-33. 8. Tanner AC