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Pēteris Tretjakovs, Juris Hofmanis, Dace Hofmane, Gita Krieviņa, Leons Blumfelds, Vitolds Mackēvičs, Aivars Lejnieks and Guntis Bahs

., Fearon, W. F. (2018). Int. J. Cardiol ., 270 , 83–88. Kunimoto, H., Kazama, K., Takai, M., Oda, M., Okada, M., Yamawaki, H. (2015). Chemerin promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle and increases mouse blood pressure. Amer. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol ., 309 (5), H1017–H1028. Lenart-Lipińska, M., Duma, D., Hałabiś, M., Dziedzic, M., Solski, J. (2016). Fibroblast growth factor 21 — a key player in cardiovascular disorders? Horm. Mol. Biol. Clin. Investig. , 30 (2). Lurins, J., Lurina, D., Tretjakovs, P., Mackevics

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Stefano Benedini and Livio Luzi

. Furthermore, the individuals receiving PIs therapy were shown to have altered parameters of endothelial dysfunction [ 16 ] . Figure 1 Morphological and metabolic alterations in patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy. The increase of insulin resistance, decrease of lipid oxidation, and redistribution of fat tissue has the capacity to increase the values of plasma FGF21. Therefore, this protein could be a good marker for the development and monitoring of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients. HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; FGF21: fibroblast growth factor 21; PIs

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Mouna Bouksila, Mehdi Mrad, Wajih Kaabachi, Eya Kalai, Wided Smaoui, Sonia Rekik, Asma Krir, Nesrine Issaoui, Kamel Hamzaoui, Hela Sahli, Elhem Cheour El Kateb, Mohammed Karim Zouaghi and Afef Bahlous

production by osteo - cytes. Pediatr Nephrol 2013; 28: 563-8. 18. Guo Y-C, Yuan Q. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone mineralisation. Int J Oral Sci 2015; 7: 8. 19. Liu S, Guo R, Simpson LG, Xiao ZS, Burnham CE, Quarles LD. Regulation of fibroblastic growth factor 23 expression but not degradation by PHEX. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 37419-26. 20. Feng JQ, Ward LM, Liu S, Lu Y, Xie Y, Yuan B, et al. Loss of DMP1 causes rickets and osteomalacia and identifies a role for osteocytes in mineral metabolism. Nat Genet 2006; 38: 1310

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Aikaterini Papagianni

Int 2013; 83: 160–166. 20. Foley RN, Curtis BM, Randell EW, Parfrey PS. Left ventricular hypertrophy in new hemodialysis patients without symptomatic cardiac disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 805-813. 21. Glassock RJ, Pecoits-Filho R, Barberato SH. Left ventricular mass in chronic kidney disease and ESRD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4 (Suppl 1): S79–S91 22. Gutierrez OM, Januzzi JL, Isakova T, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease. Circulation 2009; 119: 2545–2552. 23. Mirza MA

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Nunthawan Nowwarote, Chenphop Sawangmake, Prasit Pavasant and Thanaphum Osathanon

keywords. Eighteen articles met with the inclusion criteria and were employed as the main articles discussed in the present narrative review. bFGF and receptors bFGF is a b-sheet protein that consists of 140 amino acids [ 21 ]. It contains two receptor binding sites, locating at residues 13–30 and 106–129 [ 22 - 24 ]. These residues bind to fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) on the cell surface [ 25 ]. FGFRs consist of four subtypes: FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4 [ 26 , 27 ]. The preferential binding ability of bFGF to its receptors may lead to a

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Milan Zaric, Ivana Nikolic, Ivanka Zelen, Marina Mitrovic and Zoran Milosavljevic

REFERENCES 1. M. Ross, W. Pawlina. Histology of the skin. In Histology: A Text and Atlas 6th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2010; 493-501. 2. M. Ross, W. Pawlina. Histology of the skin. In Histology: A Text and Atlas 6th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2010; 183-185. 3. Boo S, Dagnino L. Integrins as Modulators of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling in Dermal Fibroblasts During Skin Regeneration After Injury. Adv. Wound Care 2013; 2(5): 238-246. 4. Miron-Mendoza M, Lin X, Ma L, Ririe P, Petroll WM. Individual versus

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Karolina Sterzynska, Patrycja Sujka-Kordowska and Wojciech Witkiewicz

, FERNS GA. Endogenously elicited antibodies to platelet derived growth factor-BB and platelet cytosolic protein inhibit aortic lesion development in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. Int J Exp Pathol 1997; 78:21-32 [57] RUTHERFORD C, MARTIN W, SALAME M, CARRIER M, ANGGARD E, FERNS G. Substantial inhibition of neo-intimal response to balloon injury in the rat carotid artery using a combination of antibodies to platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor. Atherosclerosis 1997; 130:45-51 [58] SCHNEIDER H, HUSE K. Arterial

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Anna Kukanova, Māra Pilmane and Dace Rezeberga

. Bioassays , 22 (2), 138-147. Hanneken, A. (1994). Identification of soluble forms of the fibroblast growth factor receptor in blood. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. , 91 , 9170-9174. Heldin, C. H., Miyazono, K., Dijke, P. (1997). TGF-b signalling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Nature , 390 , 465-471. Hill, D. J., Petrik, J., Arany, E. (1998). Growth factors and the regulation of fetal growth. Diabetes Care , Aug., 21 , 60-69. Holmes, R., Porter, H

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Adam Kukliński, Zbigniew Kamocki, Dariusz Cepowicz, Mariusz Gryko, Jolanta Czyżewska, Krystyna Pawlak and Bogusław Kędra

. Renehan Ag, Painter Je, O'Halloran D et al.: Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor II and Colorectal Adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 3402-08. Duan C: Specifying the cellular responses to IGF signals: roles of IGF binding proteins. J Endocrinol 2002; 175: 41-54. Khandwala HM, Mccutcheon IE, Flyvbjerg A et al.: The Effects of Insulin - Like Growth Factors on Tumorigenesis and Neoplastic Growth. Endocr Rev 2000; 21: 215-44. Aaronson SA: Growth factors and cancer. Science

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Wiesława Młodawska, Patrycja Mrowiec, Beata Grabowska, Joanna Waliszewska, Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Anna Migdał, Wojciech Niżański, Sylwia Prochowska, Agnieszka Partyka, Marcin Pałys, Teresa Grega and Józef Skotnicki

References Abdian N., Ghasemi-Dehkordi P., Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M., Ganji-Ar-jenaki M., Doosti A., Amiri B. (2015). Comparison of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) growth rate in culture media supplemented with or without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cell Tissue Bank, 16: 487–495. Agrawal H., Selokar N.L., Saini M., Singh M.K., Chauhan M.S., Palta P., Singla S.K., Manik R.S. (2018). m -carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide improves developmental competence, reduces apoptosis and alters epigenetic status and gene expression pattern in cloned