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Open access

Dorota Probucka

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the modern mass media, in which the line between truth and lies has been blurred, leading to a lack of responsibility for words and their cognitive value. In the first part of the article, the value of truth in journalism is explored and the professional ethos associated with it, known as being ‘pro-truth’. In the second part, the negative effects of media lies and their various forms are described.

Open access

Adi Maslo

Abstract

Satire has not been given the humorologists’ attention to an extent that would do justice to the amount of humor satire actually holds. Therefore, the intention of this paper is to shed light on satire as humorous discourse, with an emphasis on counterfactuals. Interestingly enough, counterfactuals oppose the actual state of affairs; rhetorically however, they show potential to reveal the truth. Political satire is an area of conflict between truth and falsehood which is exactly why this type of satire is discussed in this paper. Tools from Cognitive Linguistics – framing and blending – are utilized to show to what extent counterfactuals are actually false and how they essentially contribute to satire. Examples of political satire are selected from Comedy Central’s The Daily Show.

Open access

Tomasz Michaluk

Truth in Sport

The classical definition of truth, as the correspondence of something we can call facts and our image of them, applies to discussing those sports where a result is established by simple and unequivocal evaluation, based on sensory perceptions. In the most popular athletic contests, we do not perceive who wins, but we know the result of a measurement, which is later interpreted as the victory or taking a further place. The reading of a measuring device only represents the result, which does not mean that it really is the result. We do not know the real result; by reading the digits on the screen, we already read a sign. Subsequently, it can be interpreted as the sign of victory. We assume that by improving our measuring methods we approach the true representation of the results. It would be, however, naive, to claim that this process will lead to the measurement ceasing to represent and starting to be the represented object, unmediated through any signs. Therefore, apart from the classical conception of truth, we can define truth in sport semiotically as representation, and subsequently interpretation, of a sporting event, performed by the referees and spectators. In this definition truth is sanctioned by the referee's decision, not necessarily based on facts.

Some professional sports can be compared to science. A scientific experiment must observe strictly defined conditions and take into account factors valid for its course and results. The conditions of a "sporting experiment" are strictly defined and their correctness is guarded by men and machines. In science, the discovery of a falsehood disqualifies a given "scientific event"; in sport a mistake or breaking the rules can become a controversial decision or a refereeing mistake, and usually are not changed or reviewed, turning into the "truth of sport".

Open access

Pamela Anderson

Michèle Le Doeuff's "Primal Scene": Prohibition and Confidence in the Education of a Woman

My essay begins with Michèle Le Doeuff's singular account of the "primal scene" in her own education as a woman, illustrating a universally significant point about the way(s) in which education can differ for men and women: gender difference both shapes and is shaped by the imaginary of a culture as manifest in how texts matter for Le Doeuff. Her primal scene is the first moment she remembers when, while aspiring to think for herself, a prohibition is placed in her reading of literature. Her philosophyteacher—at a boys' school—told the young Michèle that Kant's Critique of Pure Reason was "too difficult" for her to read. In recalling this scene, the older (and wiser) Michèle—now, a woman philosopher—directs her readers to this text by Kant, in order to demonstrate how knowledge has been constrained by the narrative and imagery in the text of a philosopher; similarly, in the texts of others. She finds the central imagery of Kant's text for setting the limits to human knowledge in his account of "the island of understanding," or "land of truth," surrounded by "a stormy sea" of uncertainty; the latter image also retains a seductive appeal, threatening to destroy the confidence of any knower who ventures out beyond the well-marked out island. Moreover, women have (too) often been associated with the dangers at sea beyond the safety of the island, where falsehood and worse reign. I propose that "text matters" here not only for gender issues, but for the postcolonial theory which Le Doeuff's reading of island imagery enhances in western literature and culture. The suggestion is that women in the history of ideas have been more susceptible than men to prohibitions (to reading texts): women's negative education is against going beyond certain boundaries which have been fixed by a generally colonialist culture on the grounds of gender-hierarchies. I stress the significance of confidence in the production of knowledge. A lack or an inhibition of confidence in one's own ability to think critically risks the damaging exclusions of, for example, colonialism and sexism. My aim is to unearth the political biases evident in textual imagery, while also pointing to new epistemic locations, with island-and-sea imagery that transgresses patriarchal prohibition, liberating subjects for confident reading and writing of texts today.

Open access

Silviu Nate and Aurelian Rațiu

Risk Assessment 2016, An Assessment of Developments Abroad Impacting on Danish Security, Copenhagen, Danish Defence Intelligence Service, p. 12, 2016, https://feddis.dk/SiteCollectionDocuments/FE/EfterretningsmaessigeRisikovurderinger/Risikovurdering2016_EnglishVersion.pdf. [7] https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/24/world/europe/russia-denmark-hackingcyberattack-defense-ministry.html?_r=1. [8] http://cepa.org/files/?id_plik=1896. [9] Katri Pynnöniemi & András Rácz (eds.), Fog of Falsehood Russian Strategy of Deception and

Open access

Silviu Nate and Aurelian Ratiu

References [1] Christopher Paul, Miriam Matthews, The Russian “Firehose of Falsehood” Propaganda Model, RAND Corporation, 2016, pp. 2-7, accessed 18 August 2017 at https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE198/RAND_PE198.pdf. [2] Boris Toucas, Exploring the Information-Laundering Ecosystem: The Russian Case, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 31 August 2017, accessed 06 September 2017 at https

Open access

Aurelian Raţiu and Alexandra Munteanu

of Falsehood” Propaganda Model . Santa Monica, USA: RAND Corporation. Darczewska, J. (2014). The Anatomy of Russian Information Warfare: The Crimean Operation, A Case Study. Warsaw, Poland: Centre For Eastern Studies. Dyczok, M. (2013). Ukraine: Movement Without Change, Change Without Movement. Abingdon: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Gulamov, S. (2014). Understanding National Identity: Ukraineʼs Ethnic Diversity, available at: https://www.eastwest.ngo/idea/understanding-national-identity-ukraine%E2%80%99s-ethnic-diversity Haub, C

Open access

Natalia Banasik and Kornelia Podsiadło

speaker’s second-order intention. British Journal of Developmental Psychology , 9 (2), 257–270. Winner, E., Windmueller, G., Rosenblatt, E., Bosco, L., Best, E., & Gardner, H. (1987). Making sense of literal and nonliteral falsehood. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity , 2 (1), 13–32.

Open access

Thomas Halper

I Lying and the First Amendment The first amendment to the United States’ Constitution may sweepingly proclaim that “Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press,” U.S. Const., amend. I. but it has never been read by the Supreme Court to ban all restrictions on all speech, and the argument has been made, pointing at perjury, E.g., 18 U.S.C.A. § 1621. fraud, E.g., 18 U.S.C.A. § 341. and false advertising, E.g., 15 U.S.C.A. § 1125. that it does not protect lying. Lies, that is deliberate falsehoods spoken with the

Open access

Ario Santini, Leonard Azamfirei and Cosmin Moldovan

data by avoiding “outliers” and outcome measures that do not fit in with a preconceived hypothesis. Falsehood, suppression, and a disingenuous commentary is equivalent to scientific dishonesty, which has a serious detrimental impact on the general research community and possible future clinical recommendations, standards and strategies. It is imperative that authors give proper attention to the sources quoted in their papers. Concerns result from improper citations may have both personal and far-reaching consequences with doubt being levied at the authors academic