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Open access

Nicolas Olivier and Frédéric N. Daussin

instructors and the measurement begun when the legs left the wall and stopped when the hand touched the wall. The mean value was selected for analysis. The start was given in water with a whistle blow. Assessment of isokinetic torque The measurements were performed using an isokinetic dynamometer (Con-Trex, Medimex, Sainte Foy les Lyon, France). Isokinetic assessment was performed in the dominant arm for internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER) of the shoulder joint with the players in the supine position with the arm abducted at 90° in the frontal plane and

Open access

Marcin Popieluch, Jacek Zieliński and Marek Jędrysik

Evaluation of Torque of the Shank Rotating Muscles and the Range of Active Internal and External Rotation of the Knee Joint in Patients Awaiting ACL Reconstruction

Purpose. The aim of the study was threefold: to determine the active rotation range of a healthy and post-traumatic knee joint; to evaluate the torque of muscles responsible for internal and external rotation of a healthy and post-traumatic knee joint; and to determine differences between a healthy knee joint and knee joint with the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Differences between active axial rotation and muscular strength of rotators in the healthy and post-traumatic knee joints of 40 hospitalized patients were examined. Basic procedures. The static torque evaluation of the shank rotating muscles included 40 patients of the Endoscopic Surgery Clinic in Żory, with the ruptured ACL of the right knee, qualified for surgery (ACL reconstruction). On the basis of a medical interview, the ACL ruptures were found to have occurred during football games. Main findings. ACL damage leads to an increased rotation range, with a subsequent decrease of the rotators' strength and increased joint instability. The patients examined showed a substantial level of thigh quadriceps atrophy - a typical symptom associated with an ACL rupture. Our findings indicate that the internal and external rotators in intact knees were stronger than the rotators in post-traumatic knees (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The analysis of the torque of the shank rotating muscles at two knee joint flexion angles was an attempt to proceed with a laboratory diagnosis of the condition of the motor system in 40 patients following severe trauma (such as the ACL rupture of the right knee) prior to surgical intervention, and, in a longer perspective, after treatment completion. The results obtained will supposedly be useful as indicators for future rehabilitation pathways, and of the condition of the motor system following treatment completion.

Open access

Inese Pontaga and Janis Zidens

Werner SL, Gill TJ, Murray TA, Cook TD, Hawkins RJ. Relationship between throwing mechanics and shoulder distraction in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med, 2001; 29: 354 - 358 Wilk KE, Andrews CA, Arrigo MA, Kerns MA, Erber DJ. The strength characteristics of internal and external rotator muscles in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med, 1993; 21: 61 - 66

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Daniel Collado-Mateo, Francisco J. Dominguez-Muñoz, Nuno Batalha, Jose Parraça, Pablo Tomas-Carus and Jose C. Adsuar

al., 2003 ). Thus, shoulder internal rotators and adductors become stronger and hypertrophied unlike their antagonist muscle groups ( Weldon Iii and Richardson, 2001 ). This hypertrophy can lead to an agonist-antagonist muscle imbalance registered in competitive swimming ( Batalha et al., 2013 ), and might also be associated with an incoming shoulder injury ( Weldon Iii and Richardson, 2001 ). Injury prevention often involves the improvement of external rotators strength. However, the high mobility shoulder joint implies that training programs should also consider

Open access

Nuno Batalha, Sónia Dias, Daniel A. Marinho and José A. Parraca

the key variables for diagnosing muscular balance/imbalance in any joint complex. The shoulder unilateral external rotation/internal rotation ratio (ER/IR ratio) is an important indicator when evaluating and interpreting the muscular function of the upper limbs ( Ellenbecker and Davies, 2000 ). The most frequent injury in swimming is the one of the shoulder joint complex, with a prevalence from 40 to 91% ( Wanivenhaus et al., 2012 ). It is known that exclusive water training causes muscle imbalances between the internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER

Open access

Adam Czaplicki, Marcin Śliwa, Paulina Szyszka and Jerzy Sadowski

). Biomechanical assessment of the strength of volleyball players in different stages of the training macrocycle. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 22, 148-152. 10. van Cingel R., Kleinrensink G., Stoeckart R., Aufdemkampe G., de Bie R., Kuipers H. (2006). Strength values of shoulder internal and external rotators in elite volleyball players. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 15, 237-245. 11. Edouard P., Samozino P., Julia M., Carvera S., Vanbierviet W., Cameles P. et al. (2011). Reliability of isokinetic assessment of shoulder-rotator strength: a systematic

Open access

Zhang Ji-wang, Zhang Lai-bin, Ding Ke-Qin and Duan Li-xiang

R eferences [1] Tavakolpour-Saleh, A.R., Setoodeh, A.R., Gholamzadeh, M. (2016). A novel multi-component strain-gauge external balance for wind tunnel tests: Simulation and experiment. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical , 247, 172-186. [2] Sierra-Pérez, J., Torres-Arredondo, M.A., Güemes, A. (2016). Damage and nonlinearities detection in wind turbine blades based on strain field pattern recognition. FBGs, OBR and strain gauges comparison. Composite Structures , 135, 156-166. [3] Rothberg, S.J., Allen, M.S., Castellini, P. (2017). An

Open access

Aneta Popieluch, Michał Staniszewski and Michał Wychowański

-chain integration, Part 1: Concepts of functional shoulder movement. International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training 11(4), 63-65. 4. Tetreault P., Levasseur A., Lin J.C., Nuno N., Guise J., Hagemeister N. (2011). Passive contribution of the rotator cuff to abduction and joint stability. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 33(9), 767-773. 5. Ignasiak Z., Domaradzki J. (2013). Anatomy of the locomotor system. Wrocław: Elsevier Urban & Partner. [in Polish] 6. Bober T., Hay J.G. (1991). Selecting angular positions for the measurement of peak torque in the

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Agnieszka Witke-Woźniak, Michał Wychowański, Tomasz Dąmbski, Karina Szymfel and Tomasz Kochański

References 1. Lewis C. Extra-articular Snapping Hip. Sports Health 2010; 2(3): 186–90. 2. Bureau NJ. Sonographic Evaluation of Snapping Hip Syndrome. J Ultrasound Med 2013; 32(6): 895-900. 3. Hammer W. Snapping Hip Syndrome. DC 2007; 25(11): 1-3. 4. Spina AA. External coxa saltans (snapping hip) treated with Active Release Techniques: a case report. J Can Chiropr Assoc2007; 51(1): 23-9. 5. Guillin R, Marchand AJ, Roux A, Niederberger E, Duvauferrier R. Imaging of snapping phenomena. Br J Radiol 2012; 85 (1018): 1343-53. 6

Open access

Vladimír Pohánka

Gravitational field of the homogeneous rotational ellipsoidal body: a simple derivation and applications

We calculate the gravitational intensity and potential of a homogeneous body with the shape of the rotational ellipsoid. The calculation is performed in ellipsoidal coordinates and uses the properties of harmonic functions expressed as ellipsoidal harmonics. The resulting formulae for the internal and external fields are expressed in ellipsoidal coordinates and (in the case of external field) also in spherical coordinates. The results are used in the calculation of the gravitational field of a layered body whose layer boundaries are rotational ellipsoids with common centre and rotational axis; the density in each layer is constant. The equilibrium of such a layered rotating body is examined: it is found that there is no equilibrium for such a body except the case that the body is homogeneous (thus proving once more the important, but rarely mentioned, fact).