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Paweł Konieczyński and Marek Wesołowski

References 1. Gomez MR, Cerutti S, Olsina RA, Silva MF, Martinez LD. Metal content monitoring in Hypericum perforatum pharmaceutical derivatives by atomic absorption and emission spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2004; 34 :569-76. 2. Abugassa IO, Bashir AT, Doubtali K, Etwir RH, Abu-Enawel M, Abugassa SO. Characterization of trace elements in medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2008; 278:559-63. 3. Kumar A, Nair AGC, Reddy AVR, Garg AN. Analysis of essential

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Aleksandar R. Popović, Dubravka J. Relić, Danijela V. Vranić, Jelena A. Babić-Milijašević, Lato L. Pezo and Jasna M. Đinović-Stojanović

;10:24. doi: 10.1186/1471-2261-10-24 6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / World Health Orgaization (FAO/WHO). Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation Bangkok, Thailand. Rome: Food and NutritionDivision FAO; 2001. 7. Fraga CG. Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:235-44. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.013 8. Roos N, Wahab MA, Chamnan C, Thilsted SH. The role of fish in foodbased strategies to combat

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Ljubica Grbović, Slavko Kevrešan, Vera Ćirin-Novta, Ksenija Kuhajda, Žarko Kevreša, Ksenija Pavlović and Bojana Vasiljević

Summary

Young plants of celery, parsley, parsnip and carrot, grown in nutrient solution, were treated with sodium naphthenate (10−7 mol dm−3), applying foliar and root treatments. Both treatments affected the root content of all investigated elements present in the nutrient solution, but in a different way, depending on the plant species. An average change (increase/decrease) in the contents of investigated essential elements was about 35%. Our experiments with naphthenate showed that this treatment may enhance the efficiency of essential elements uptake and increase its content in plants without changing concentration of these elements in the nutrient solution. Especially interesting results were obtained in the case of carrot, as increased contents were observed in the elements that are usually deficient in nutrition (Fe, Zn, Mn), whereas the other remained unchanged.

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Fateheya Metwally and Manal Mazhar

References Exley C, Birchall JD. The cellular toxicity of aluminum. J Theor Biol 1992;159:83-98. Strong MJ, Garruto RM, Joshi JG, Mundy WR, Shafer TJ. Can mechanisms of Aluminum neurotoxicity be integrated into a unified scheme? J Toxicol Environ Health 1996;48:599-613. Aggett PJ. Trace elements in human nutrition. J Trop Pediatr 1980;26:43-5. Goyer AR. Toxic and essential metal interactions. Ann Rev Nutr 1997

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Vesna Matović, Aleksandra Buha, Zorica Bulat and Danijela Đukić-Ćosić

2005;159:38-46. Martelli A, Rousselet E, Dycke C, Bouron A, Moulis JM. Cadmium toxicity in animal cells by interference with essential metals. Biochimie 2006;88:1807-14. Osman K, Akesson A, Berglund M, Bremme K, Schütz A, Ask K, Vahter M. Toxic and essential elements in placentas of Swedish women. Clin Biochem 2000;33:131-8. Sorell TL, Graziano JH. Effect of oral cadmium exposure during pregnancy on maternal and fetal zinc metabolism in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1990

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Sławomir Dresler, Wiesław Bednarek, Przemysław Tkaczyk and Barbara Hawrylak-Nowak

Abstract

Environmental monitoring was conducted in the Lublin region in 2009-2012 aimed at the assessment of the supply of several macro- and micronutrients in raspberries plants. The plantations studied were located in eight main regions for the growing of raspberries (Bełżyce, Chodel, Godziszów, Kraśnik, Lublin, Międzyrzec Podlaski, Opole Lubelskie and Urzędów). The contents of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and boron (B) were determined in raspberry leaves. Furthermore, the impact of select soil properties on the content of essential elements in the leaves was assessed. The results obtained revealed the suitable N, P, K, Mg, B, Zn and Cu supplies in the plants. However, the mean content of Mn greatly exceeded the optimal level recommended for this species. Also, the content of Fe in some regions was above the optimal value. The calculated correlation coefficients between soil properties and the content of the elements in raspberry leaves suggest that these variables were interdependent in only a few cases.

Open access

Paweł Konieczyński and Marek Wesołowski

and herbs. Food Chemistry 130: 196-202. KONIECZYNSKI P., WESOLOWSKI M. 2007. Determination of zinc, iron, nitrogen and phosphorus in several botanical species of medicinal plants. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 16: 785-790. KONIECZYNSKI P., WESOLOWSKI M., RADECKA I., RAFALSKI P. 2011. Bioavailable inorganic forms of essential elements in medicinal plants from Northern Poland. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability 23: 61-70. KONIECZYNSKI P. 2015. Electrochemical fingerprint studies of selected medicinal

Open access

Vladislav Eybl and Dana Kotyzová

, 271-278. Pillai A, Gupta S. (2005). Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in liver of female rats co-exposed to lead and cadmium: effects of vitamin E and Mn2+. Free Radic Res   39 : 707-712. Santamaria AB, Sulsky SI. (2010). Risk assessment of an essential element: manganese. J Toxicol Environ Health A   73 : 128-155. Sedlak J, Lindsay, RH. (1968). Estimation of total, proteinbound and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellman's reagent. Analyt Biochem   25 , 192

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Ralph Panos and William Eschenbacher

Open access

Julejda Aliaj Gërxhi and Enkelejda Haxhiraj

Abstract

The franchise contract was a type of contract used frequently in trading during the Middle Ages. However, for almost a century, this contract is being used by business law entities, which want to enter the business and have a bigger profit. Regardless of the technical-legislative elements or special features of the parties’ juridical-civil relationship, franchising contract is a form of business. It is considered to be one of the easiest contracts in civilian use by different persons, not only about the innovations provided from the commercial aspect, but also as a reflection of modernity and the progress in trading.The franchise contract is a concept envisioned by Albanian legislation, but practically it has been implemented rarely and not in line with current domestic market requirements. In these conditions, its application has provided disputes between the signatory subjects. For this reason, the essence of this work will be not only the legal-civilian understanding of the franchise contract, but also the way this contract is implemented in Albania. The study will be based on the use of the analytical method of advantages that the franchise contract application aims to produce by referring to its legal-civilian analysis. We also aim to use the comparative method of implementation of this contract in Western countries. This study will present the advantages that the franchise contract produces b from the civil law aspect, in view of its practical implementation by the contracting parties. This study aims to move forward in a more in-depth analysis of the franchise contract in the Albanian reality and the shortcomings that this contract presents, in relation to the most developed countries. Also, franchising does not operates only through a simple, typical contract, but transforms and is transformed in a variety of ways, which should be analyzed so that to point out and reveal the product of franchising and the benefits it brings to the contracting parties.