References  Mazloomi, K. - Sulaiman, N. - Moayedi H.: An Investigation into the Electrical Impedance of Water Electrolysis Cells - With a View to Saving Energy. In International Journal of Electrochemical Science [online]. 7 (2012) p. 3466-3481 <http://www.ele-ctrochemsci.org/papers/vol7/7043466.pdf>  Vanags M. et al. Water Electrolysis with Inductive Voltage Pulses. In Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia [online] <http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/52453>  Shimizu, N. et al. A
Ján Poláčik and Jiří Pospíšil
M. Reimanis, L. Mezule, J. Ozolins, J. Malers and T. Juhna
, 291-296. 14. Kraft, A. (2008). Electrochemical water disinfection: a short review. Platinum Metals Rev ., 52 (3), 177-185. 15. Reimanis, M., Malers, J., Ozolins, J. (2010). Preparation of water using Electrochemical Processes. Intern. J. Chem. Environmental Eng., World Acad. res. publ. Press. , 1 (1), 35-39. 16. Reimanis, M., Mezule, L., Malers, J., Ozolins, J., Juhna, T. (2011). Model water disinfection with electrolysis using Ti n O 2 n -1 containing ceramic electrodes. Environ. Biotechnol. , 7 (1) 34
P. Aizpurietis, M. Vanags, J. Kleperis and G. Bajars
References 1. Hoffmann, P. (2012). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet . MIT Press, p. 367. 2. Engelhardt, V. (2010). The Electrolysis of Water: Processes and Applications . Nabu Press, p. 162 3. Brown, A.P., Krumpelt, M., Loutfy, R.O., & Yao, N.P. (1982). The effect of surface roughness on the hydrogen evolution reaction kinetics with mild steel and nickel cathodes. Electrochimica Acta, 27 , 557-560 4. Behzadian, B., Piron, D.L., Fan, C
Grazyna Piotrowska and Boguslaw Pierozynski
impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study of phenolic films. Rev. Roum. Chim. 53(11), 1007–1015. 4. Tasic, Z., Gupta, V.K. & Antonijevic, M.M. (2014). The mechanism and kinetics of degradation of phenolics in wastewaters using electrochemical oxidation. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 9, 3473–3490. 5. Yang, X., Kirsch, J., Fergus, J. & Simonian, A. (2013). Modeling analysis of electrode fouling during electrolysis of phenolic compounds. Electrochim. Acta 94, 259–268. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2013.01.019. 6. Li, X., Cui, Y., Feng, Y., Xie, Z. & Gu, J. (2005
A. Białobrzeski, J. Pezda and A. Jarco
The present work discusses results of preliminary tests concerning the technology of continuous dosage of sodium to a metallic bath from the aspect of modification of EN AC-44200 alloy, through the use of a multiple compound (salt) of sodium. The technology consists in continuous electrolysis of sodium salts occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. As a measure of the degree of alloy modification over the course of testing, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS or Rm) and analysis of microstructure are taken, which confirm the obtained effects of the modification on the investigated alloy. Assurance of stable parameters during the process of continuous modification with sodium, taking into consideration the fact of complex physical-chemical phenomena, requires additional tests aimed at their optimization and determination of a possibility of implementation of such technology in metallurgical processes.
Jakub Kupecki, Konrad Motyliński, Marek Skrzypkiewicz, Michał Wierzbicki and Yevgeniy Naumovich
References  Milewski J., Wołowicz M., Lewandowski J.: Optimization of the working conditions of a laboratory size (100 cm2) molten carbonate fuel cel l. ECS Transactions 51(2013), 1, 37-45.  Schwarze K., Posdziech O., Kroop S. et al.: Green industrial hydrogen via reversible high-temperature electrolysis. ECS Transactions 78(2017), 1, 2943-2952.  Pozzo M., Lanzini A., Santarelli M.: Enhanced biomass-to-liquid (BTL) conversion process through high temperature co-electrolysis in a solid oxide electrolysis
S. Pietrzyk, P. Palimaka and W. Gębarowski
References  M. Sørlie, H.A. Øye, Cathodes in Aluminium Electrolysis, Aluminium-Verlag, Düsseldorf, (1994).  M. Sørlie, H.A. Øye, J. Appl. Electrochem. 19, 580 (1989).  D. Lombard, T. Béhérégara y, B. Fève, J.M. Jolas, Light Metals. 653 (1998).  J. Xu e, H.A. Øye, Light Metals. 211 (1994).  X. Liao, H.A. Øye, Light Metals. 667 (1998).  X. Liao, H.A. Øye, Light Metals. 621 (1999).  K. Vasshaug, The Influence of the formation and
Przemysław Łoś, Aneta Łukomska, Sylwia Kowalska, Regina Jeziórska, Przemysław Zaprzalski and Jerzy Krupka
In the present paper a novel group of electromagnetic metamaterials as well as the method of their fabrication is presented. The studied metamaterials are polymer composites and nanocomposites made of polymer matrix/host (ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene, polypropylene etc.) filled with copper flakes, of micrometer and/or nanometer size, as the conducting inclusions. The copper filler flakes were obtained by cathodic current pulse electrolysis from copper sulfate electrolytes at the stainless steel electrodes. SEM analysis showed that the morphology and structure of the copper deposit can be precisely controlled by applying different kind of current pulse and reversed current pulsed electrolysis. The polymer composite metamaterials formed by extrusion of small beads of polymer mixed with the copper flakes consisted of polymer matrix and copper flakes, ranging in length from 1 to 500 micrometers, and ranging in thickness from 80 nm to 2000 nm. The concentration of the copper flakes ranged from 0.5 wt% to 40 wt%, depending on the applications and required electromagnetic and mechanical properties. The studied materials were found to exhibit effective magnetic permeability that was smaller than unity, which is indicative of the typical properties of metamaterials. Present development solves technological and economical problems related to modern microelectronics methods which are currently mainly used for metamaterial fabrication.
M. Vanags, J. Kleperis and G. Bajars
References Nicholson, W., Carlisle, A., & Cruickshank, W. (1800). Experiments on galvanic electricity. Phil. Mag. , 7, 337-350. Zoulias, E., Lymberopoulos, N., Varkaraki, E., Christodoulou, C.N., & Karagiorgis, G. (2004). A Review on Water Electrolysis. TCJST, 4 (2), 41-71. Bockris, J.O'M., & Veziroglu, T.N. (2007). Estimates of the price of hydrogen as a medium for wind and solar sources. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32 , 1605-1610. McDowall, W., & Eames
Kamil Kerekeš, Katarína Švaňová, Ján Híveš and Miroslav Gál
During last decades interest in ferrates(VI) has increased significantly. On one hand they serve as strong, non-toxic oxidants without harmful by-products and, on the other hand, as an efficient coagulant in both drinking and waste water treatment technology. In this work we focused on the electrochemical preparation of ferrate (VI) salts in eutectic low temperature molten sodium hydroxide - water mixture using pure iron anodes. Some information on the stability and kinetics of decomposition of sodium ferrate(VI) prepared by molten-system electrolysis is discussed. An assumption that electrochemically prepared ferrate(VI) in molten hydroxide media are stable enough to be used especially in the field of waste water treatment was confirmed by our observation.