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A number of methods and techniques for determining “effective” solutions for multiple objective linear programming problems (MPP) have been developed. In this study, we will present two simple methods for determining an efficient solution for a MPP that reducing the given problem to a one-objective linear programming problem. One of these methods falls under the category of methods of weighted metrics, and the other is an approach similar to the ε- constraint method. The solutions determined by the two methods are not only effective and are found on the Pareto frontier, but are also “the best” in terms of distance to the optimal solutions for all objective function from the MPP. Obviously, besides the optimal solutions of linear programming problems in which we take each objective function, we can also consider the ideal point and Nadir point, in order to take into account all the notions that have been introduced to provide a solution to this problem
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Currently, one of the challenging tasks for Chinese engineering community is to construct a water-way crossing of Qiongzhou Strait in the south of China. This project has also gained significant attention from researchers in academia. The study presented herein is centered on providing a feasible solution for ac-complishing the above mentioned task. Initially, different alternatives as the best location, judged on the basis of the environmental constraints, are studied. Then the comparison between various structural solutions such as suspension bridge, submarine tunnel and SFT is presented. Among these solutions, SFT appears to be a very suitable alternative for Qiongzhou Strait waterway crossing due to distinctive advantages, like shorter distance, lower cost, less impact on environment and navigation, etc. Based on the appropriate conception for cross sections, support systems, materials, joints and connection schemes, a numerical model is developed by means of the FEM software ANSYS/Fluent. It is then analyzed under the influence of different environmental loading conditions, varying the wave heights and lengths, current velocities and water depths, which are typical in Qiongzhou Strait. The numerical results reveal that the proposed SFT solution performs safely even under extreme weather conditions.
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The cycle of corporate measures in line with consideration of apprehensions related to supportable progress and communal and environmental accountability broadens the constraint of routine measurement to take into justification social and environmental gauges. The role of management accounting, historically orientated toward the dimension of economic and financial performance, is consequently questioned in its capacity to evolve towards an integration of these standards into the dimension, management and performance reporting fashions. Environmental control Accounting may be understood as an extension of outmoded management accounting (Anthony 1988, Simons 1995) toward environmental control (Boiral 2007, Renaud 2009). Conversely, several pieces of research tend to indicate that, some distance from integration, we’d rather witness phenomena of loose coupling among monetary, environmental and social performance systems. Management accounting could then be refocused on management and reporting of economic and economic overall performance, even as different functions of the enterprise might be in charge of the social and environmental dimensions of overall performance. This can be seen as an instance of Brunsson’s (1989) thesis on organizational hypocrisy. The purpose of this paper is to look at the position of management accounting structures in sustainable and development techniques. Specifically, it is a concern of interrogating closely the speculation of a decoupling that would bring about the focusing of control accounting systems on the sole scope of financial and economic measures and reporting. The study will use a survey method of quantitative research to examine the impacts of the inclusion of environmental and social dimensions to the management accounting basic functions. It will engage workers of entities working in Lebanon. A survey will examine management accountants’ perceptions about the Environmental Management Accounting. The results will show the possibilities of actions of the environmental management accounting and the arbitration between financial priorities, environmental and social issues and will propose different configurations of environmental management accounting.