, 1, pp. 52–56. (in Polish) Giemza, M. (2013). Ultrasonic disintegration of the sewage treatment plant. The effects of ultrasonic disintegration in practice on several examples of sewage treatment plant, Technologia Wody , 11, pp. 31–35. (in Polish) Gogate, P.R., Tatake, P.A., Kanthale, P.M. & Pandit, A.B. (2002). Mapping of sonochemical reactors: review, analysis and experimental verification, AIChE J ournal, 48, pp. 1542–1560. Grönroos, A., Kyllönen, H., Korpijärvi, K., Pirkonen, P., Paavola, T., Jokela, J. & Rintala, J. (2005). Ultrasound
Malwina Tytła and Ewa Zielewicz
Khalid M. El-Say, Tarek A. Ahmed, Maged F. Abdelbary, Bahaa E. Ali, Bader M. Aljaeid and Ahmed S. Zidan
References 1. P. Lennartz and J. B. Mielck, Minitabletting: Improving the compactability of paracetamol powder mixtures, Int. J. Pharm. 173 (1998) 75-85; DOI: 10.1016/S0378-5173(98)00206-3. 2. I . Stoltenberg and J. Breitkreutz, Orally disintegrating mini-tablets (odmts) - a novel solid oral dosage form for paediatric use, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 78 (2011) 462-469; DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb. 2011.02.005. 3. K. Wening and J. Breitkreutz, Oral drug delivery in personalized medicine: Unmet needs and novel approaches
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Anna Ciaciuch, Jerzy Gaca and Karolina Lelewer
, London. 4. Bougrier, C., Carrere, H. & Delgenes, J. (2005). Solubilisation of waste-activated sludge by ultrasonic treatment. Chem. Eng. J. 106, 163–169. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2004.11.013. 5. Zhang, P., Zhang, G. & Wang, W. (2007). Ultrasonic treatment of biological sludge: Floc disintegration, cell lysis and inactivation. Bioresource Technol. 98, 207–210. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.12.002. 6. Zhang, G., Yang, J., Liu, H. & Zhang, J. (2009). Sludge ozonation: Disintegration, supernatant changes and mechanisms. Bioresource Technol. 100, 1505
One of the trends in design solutions of crushers ensuring the crushing ratio of about 30 involves the application of the vibratory-impulse action to the material to be crushed. Crushers utilising these effects are referred to as vibratory crushers. During the vibratory crushing the material to be disintegrated is subjected to the action of fast changing shearing forces, which leads to the material being crushed either by applied impulses or by fatigue action, unlike conventional crushers where the structure of the material is damaged by the applied pressure.
A dynamic analysis of the vibrating jaw crusher operation is provided and its potential application to crushing hard materials, such as alloy materials containing iron and slag from metallurgical processes are explored.
Vytautas Jocius and Gintautas Skripkiūnas
Concrete is a composite material composed of a binder, aggregates, water and additives. Mixing of cement with water results in a number of chemical reactions known as cement hydration. Heating of concrete results in dehydration processes of cement minerals and new hydration products, which disintegrate the microstructure of concrete. This article reviews results of research conducted with Portland and alumina cement with conventional and refractory concrete aggregates. In civic buildings such common fillers as gravel, granite, dolomite or expanded clay are usually used. It is important to point out the differences between fillers because they constitute the majority of the concrete volume.
Justyna Czajkowska, Maciej Malarski Abde, Piotr Nowak and Tadeusz Siwiec
Development. No. 13b p. 149-159. CZAJKOWSKA J., KAZIMIERCZAK M. 2016. Wpływ dezintegracji mikrofalowej na proces tlenowej stabilizacji osadu nadmiernego [The impast of the disintegration of the microwave on the process of aerobic digestion of excess sludge]. Przegląd Naukowy. Inżynieria i Kształtowanie Środowiska. Vol. 25 (4). No. 74 p. 444-452. ESKICIOGLUA C., TERZIANB N., KENNEDY K.J., DROSTEA R.L., HAMODAC M. 2007. Athermal microwave effects for enhancing digestibility of waste activated sludge. Water Research. No. 41 p. 2457
Klaudiusz Grűbel, Alicja Machnicka, Ewelina Nowicka and Stanisław Wacławek
The previously received results of individual processes of hydrodynamic and alkaline disintegration were decisive significant for the conducted research task. The combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (30 minutes duration of the process) and alkaline (pH ≈ 9) to the destruction of activated sludge caused a significant release of organic matter about 1383 mg/dm3 in comparing to individual processes. Such increase in the SCOD value resulted in a significant growth the efficiency of biogas yield in a two-stage mesophilic-thermophilic processes. The increase in yield was from 26 to 38% depending on the volume of disintegrated sludge. The effect of the two-stage fermentation resulted activated sludge hygienisation. The microbiological analysis of the influence of the fermentation with the different volume of hybrid disintegrated sludge was based on microbiological indicators: Salmonella spp. and coliphages. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the two-stage digestion process compared to single mesophilic fermentation which not always completely eliminates the above indicators.
Iwona Zawieja and Paweł Wolski
Effect of Thermal Disintegration of Excess Sludge on the Effectiveness of Hydrolysis Process in Anaerobic Stabilization
The factor which essentially affects sludge biodegradation rate is the degree of fluidization of insoluble organic polymers to the solved form, which is a precondition for availability of nutrients for microorganisms. The phases which substantially limit the rate of anaerobic decomposition include hydrolytic and methanogenic phase.
Subjecting excess sludge to the process of initial disintegration substantially affects the effectiveness of the process of anaerobic stabilization. As a result of intensification of the process of hydrolysis, which manifests itself in the increase in the value and rate of generating volatile fatty acids (VFA), elongation of methanogenic phase of the process and increase in the degree of fermentation of modified sludge can be observed. Use of initial treatment of sewage sludge i.e. thermal disintegration is aimed at breaking microorganisms' cells and release of intracellular organic matter to the liquid phase. As a result of thermal hydrolysis in the sludge, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) are generated as early as at the stage of the process of conditioning. The obtained value of VFA determines the course of biological hydrolysis which is the first phase of anaerobic stabilization.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal disintegration of excess sludge on the effectiveness of the process of hydrolysis in anaerobic stabilization i.e. the rate of production of volatile fatty acids, changes in the level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and increase in the degree of reduction in organic matter. During the first stage of the investigations, the most favourable conditions of thermal disintegration of excess sludge were identified using the temperatures of 50°C, 70°C, 90°C and heating times of 1.5 h - 6 h. The sludge was placed in laboratory flasks secured with a glass plug with liquid-column gauge and subjected to thermal treatment in water bath with shaker option. Another stage involved 8-day process of anaerobic stabilization of raw and thermally disintegrated excess sludge. Stabilization was carried out in mesophilic temperature regime i.e. at 37°C, under periodical conditions. In the case of the process of anaerobic stabilization of thermally disintegrated excess sludge at the temperature of 50°C and heating time of 6 h (mixture B) and 70°C and heating time of 4.5% (mixture C), the degree of fermentation of 30.67% and 33.63%, respectively, was obtained. For the studied sludge, i.e. mixture B and mixture C, maximal level of volatile fatty acids i.e. 874.29 mg CH3COOH/dm3 and 1131.43 mg CH3COOH/dm3 was found on the 2nd day of the process. The maximal obtained value of VFA was correlated on this day with maximal COD level, which was 1344 mg O2/dm3 for mixture B and 1778 mg O2/dm3 for mixture C.