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Vincenc Kopeček, Tomáš Hoch and Vladimír Baar

, pp. 113-136. DOI: Caspersen, N., 2008b: From Kosovo to Karabakh: International Responses to De Facto States. In: Südosteuropa, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 58-83. Caspersen, N., 2009: Playing the Recognition Game: External Actors and De Facto States. In: The International Spectator, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 47-60. DOI: Caspersen, N., 2011: Democracy, nationalism and (lack of) sovereignty: the complex dynamics of democratisation in unrecognised

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Tomáš Hoch, Emil Souleimanov and Tomáš Baranec

paper No. 1., University of Hamburg - IPW, 38. Hoch, T., 2010: The Limits of Humanitarian Aid and Development Cooperation in War-torn Separatist Regions: A Case Study of Abkhazia. In: Beyond Globalisation: Exploring the Limits of Globalisation in the Regional Context. Ostrava: University of Ostrava, pp. 139-145. Hoch, T., 2011: EU Strategy towards Post-Soviet De Facto States. In: Contemporary European Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 69-85. ICG Europe Report No. 159. Georgia: Avoiding War in South Ossetia. 26 November 2004

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Dovilė Jakniūnaitė

, pp.11-63. O’Tuathail, G., 1996. Critical Geopolitics. London: Routledge. Parker, N., Adler-Nissen, R., 2012. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’ Border: A Theory of Changing State Bordering Practices. Geopolitics, 17, 773-796. Parliament of Georgia, 2008. Law of Georgia on Occupied Territories. Pegg, S., 1998. International Society and the De Facto States. Aldershot: Ashgate. Saakashvili, M., 2004. Speech at the 59th Session of the UN General Assembly. UN General Assembly, September 21

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Nadežda Šišková

References Funta, R. (2011). Economic Law and Economic Crisis. Where Do We Go From Here? Economic, Legal and Political Dimension. DANUBE: Law and Economics Review, 2(1), 65-71. Kacaljak, M. (2011). The Debt Crisis and the Means of Enforcing the Budgetary Discipline of EU Member States. DANUBE: Law and Economics Review, 2(4), 63-79. House of Lords of the UK Parliament (2012). The Euro Area Crisis. 25th Report of session 2010-2012, European Union Committee. Retrieved from http

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Florin Dumiter, Ștefania Jimon and Marius Boiță

., Jimon, Ș., (2017), Fundamentarea convențiilor de evitare a dublei impuneri fiscale internaționale în România – o abordare holistică , în Volumul Adaptabilitate, Divergențe și Perspective în Contabilitatea și Fiscalitatea Contemporană, CECCAR Arad, Coordonatori: Mateș D., Cernușca L., Micle, N., Dumiter, F., David, D., Costi, B., Horga, P., Editura Casa Cărții de Știință, Cluj – Napoca, pp. 237 – 258. 5. Maisto, G., (2005), Multilingual Texts and Interpretation of Tax Treaties and EC Tax Law, EC International Tax Law Series Volume 1, IBFD. 6. Panayi, C

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Wolfgang Koeth


The recent string of existential crises in Europe - the Euro crisis, Russia’s aggression in Ukraine and the refugee crisis of 2015 - have resulted in new dynamics within the European Union. In Brussels, Germany has emerged as the hardly contested nexus of decision making. It was in particular through the Ukraine crisis and the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014 that Germany found itself assuming a leadership role also in the EU’s foreign policy, a role it has shunned in the past. However, for Berlin this new role is far from obvious - it is only gradually that Germany grew comfortable with its enhanced role, which is due more to external circumstances than by its own design. Conscious of its own image abroad and, due to the still prevalent feeling of historical guilt, the fear of being perceived as a dominating power has so far prevented Germany from occupying the forefront of the stage, preferring to pulling strings from behind and presenting itself as the EU’s “Chief Facilitation Officer”. This article analyses how Germany, in particular through the Ukraine crisis starting in 2014, affirmed itself - albeit reluctantly - as a nexus of decision making in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and became the de facto leading nation for defining the EU’s response towards Russia. The article points out the internal and external consequences of this new role and, in particular, its impact on the Baltic States.

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Lazăr Vlăsceanu and Marian-Gabriel Hâncean


Our main purpose was to look into the correspondence relation between the macro-level normative planning within higher education (implemented by the Romanian communist state) and the de facto micro-level occupational mobility of higher education graduates. We unraveled a consistent lack of correspondence between higher education graduates’ flows and economic production, split on different areas (i.e. industry, agriculture, services). In this light, the production of services significantly increased during communism, given an insignificant oscillation in the number of specialists in services, and in spite of the state’s priority to support industrial production by sustaining large numbers of technical higher education graduates. Identifying time series data on education, population and economy, we explored trends from cross national (i.e. Romania in the context of the Eastern Communist Block) and cross topic (i.e. education, demography and economy) perspectives. We used regression equations to estimate linear trends, the Dickey-Fuller test for stationary checking, and the original stationary variable differencing for oscillation comparative purposes. Our main finding was that the inflation of technical higher education graduates, triggered by the Romanian communist state to support the industry, backfired an informal individual occupational mobility towards urban areas that offered jobs in the service sector.

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Ying Ding and Kyle Stirling

, eventually, finding success. The problem-solving process can be viewed as a search for a path connecting the initial state and the goal state ( Klahr, 2000 ). In cognitive science, a problem space contains the set of states, operators, goals, and constraints, and this problem space can be huge or small depending on whether you are on the right path to the final goal. The time to reach the final goal can be significantly shortened if the right tools are used. How challenging the problem-solving process is also depends on the basic components in a problem space. The

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Iga Małobęcka-Szwast

a Worldwide Survey’ (2009) European University Institute Working Paper RSCAS 2009/63. Hanretty Chris and Christel Koop, ‘De jure and de facto independence of regulatory agencies’ (2010) <> . Hanretty Chris, Pierre Larouche, and Andreas Reindl, ‘Independence, accountability and perceived quality of regulators’ (2012) CERRE stud <> . ICN

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Wawrzyniec Michalczyk

. Borowski, J., Brzoza-Brzezina, M., Szpunar, P. (2003): Exchange Rate Regimes and Po land's Participation in ERM II. Bank i Kredyt nr 1, pp. 18-27. Convergence Report 2008 (2008a). Brussels: European Commission. Convergence Re port May 2008 (2008b). Frankfurt: ECB. Copeland, L.S. (1994). Exchange rates and international finance. Wokingham: Addison Wesley. De Facto Classification of Exchange Rate Regimes and Monetary Policy Frameworks. Data as of April 31, 2008