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Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec

. Morphological and anatomical modification in winter barley culm after late plant growth regulator treatment. Eur. J. Agronomy, 11, 45-51. Sinha S.K., Bhargava S.C., and Goel A., 1982. Energy as the basis of harvest index. J. Agric. Science, 99, 237-238. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland, 2015. http://aurl.pl/Yearbook-2015 StatSoft Inc. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10. 2011; www.statsoft.com. Summers M.D., Jenkins B.M., Hyde P.R., Williams J.F., Mutters R.G., Scardacci S.C., and

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T. Zając, A. Oleksy, A. Stokłosa, A. Klimek-Kopyra and J. Macuda

Guckert A., 1999. Morphological and anatomical modification in winter barley culm after late plant growth regulator treatment. Eur. J. Agron., 11, 45-51. Sener O., Arslan M., Soysal Y., and Erayman M., 2009. Estimates of relative yield potential and genetic improvement of wheat cultivars in the Mediterranean region. J. Agric. Sci., 147, 323-332. Singh S., Dutt D., and Tyagi C.H., 2011. Complete characterization of wheat straw ( Triticum aestivum PBW-343 L. Emend. Fiori and Paol.) - a renewable source of fibres for pulp and paper

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Vladimír Hrazdil, Stanislav Houzar, Jiří Sejkora, Šárka Koníčková and Lenka Jarošová

.A. (2009): Proton location and hydrogen bonding in the hydrous lead copper sulfates linarite Pb Cu(SO4)(OH)2, and caledonite Pb5Cu2(SO4)3CO3(OH)6. - Can. Mineral. 47: 649-662. Zimák J., Losos Z., Novotný P., Dobeš P. & Hladíková J. (2002): Study of vein carbonates and notes to the genesis of hydrothermal mineralisation in the Moravo-Silesian Culm. - J. Czech geol. soc. 47(3-4): 111-122. Internet source: Databáze Raman spekter, RTG - difrakceachemických dat pro minerály (online). Dostupnéz: http://rruff.info/linarite/display=default/R060130

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Bogumił Nowak

Effect of rushes on evaporation rate in water reservoirs on the example of Powidzkie Lake

This paper presents research on evaporation from the lake surface within the reed bed zone. The main focus of the research was the process of evaporation of water adhered to reed culms in different weather conditions. The process of transpiration, i.e. evaporation of water from plants due to their physiological processes was ignored. To avoid any ambiguity and to stress the different nature of both processes, the studied phenomenon is referred to as "mechanical evaporation". The analysis was based on measurements taken on Powidzkie Lake. The results showed that "mechanical evaporation" from reed culms above the water level can considerably increase evaporation rate of an aquifer. The values of total evaporation within the reed bed zone were estimated. These were compared to the values of evaporation from the open lake surface. The rate difference was at the level of 10-30%. Furthermore, the study showed that the value of "mechanical evaporation" varied depending on the reed species, wind speed and direction, wave height, and width of lakeshore with vegetation. Seasonal variations of the lake's water surface were of slightly lesser importance.

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Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec

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Natalia Tatuśko, Donata Kosicka-Dziechciarek and Mateusz Pluta

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of straw of two spring wheat cultivars, Tybalt – with the culm filled with pith, and Ostka Smolicka – with the hollow culm, added to light textured soil, on the mineralisation rate of organic matter. The incubation experiment was established under laboratory conditions and comprised three experimental combinations: K1 was soil with an addition of pith-filled culms, K2 – soil with an addition of straw with hollow culms, and K0 – the control with no straw added. In all the combinations, mineral fertilisation was applied in the form of urea. Incubation lasted for 14 months. At specific dates the amounts of CO2 released within 24 h and pH values were recorded. The rate of organic matter mineralisation was expressed in mg CO2·d−1. Analyses showed that the addition of straw, both with pith-filled and hollow culms, significantly influenced the mineralisation of organic matter in the first months of incubation. Mineralisation was most intensive in the soil incubated with straw with hollow culms. The large amount of released carbon dioxide in the first days of incubation caused a decrease in pH both in the control soil and in soils with the addition of straw. The change in the soil reaction to its initial value was recorded at day 222 for the soil combination K0 and at day 250 of incubation in soils fertilised with straw.

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Arno Mücke, Zdeněk Dolníček, Bohuslav Fojt, Jana Hladíková, Marta Pudilová, Jaroslav Reif and Radek Škoda

Tables. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. Stuttgart. Synek J., Rajlich P. & Urban M. (1990): Transpression and transtension in the Devonian and Culm of the Nízký Jeseník Mts. - Acta Univ. Carol., Geol. 2: 209-234. Urbánek J. (1988): Poznatky z revizního průzkumu ložiska Horní Benešov. - Geol. průzk. 30: 193-197. Wedepohl K.H. (1975): Handbook of Geochemistry. Springer-Verl. Stuttgart. Zachař Z. (1983): Mineralogie chloritů železorudných výskytů ve šternbersko-hornobenešovskémk pruhu. ms., diploma

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Monika Henschke, Katarzyna Pers and Sylwia Opalińska

Abstract

Florists’ greens are becoming increasingly important in contemporary floristry. Numerous studies conducted on cut flowers have led to the development of technologies for their post-harvest handling; however, in the case of florists’ greens they are still insufficient. Moreover, the extensive range of florists’ greens lacks leaves and the leafy culms of grasses. The aim of this study was to determine the post-harvest longevity of the leaves and leafy culms of ornamental grasses conditioned in water solutions of gibberellic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate. The post-harvest longevity of leaves was examined in cultivars of the following species: Glyceria maxima Hartm. ‘Variegata’, Miscanthus sinensis Thunb. ‘Zebrinus’ and Spartina pectinata Link. ‘Aureomarginata’. The post-harvest longevity of leafy culms was investigated in Alopecurus pratensis L. ‘Aureovariegatus’, Chasmanthium latifolium Michx., Miscanthus sinensis Thunb. ‘Silberspinne’, Pennisetum alopecuroides L. and Phalaris arundinacea L. ‘Picta’. Conditioning in gibberellic acid had a positive effect on the post-harvest longevity and fresh weight loss and the index of leaf greenness of leaves in the case of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Zebrinus’, while conditioning in 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate improved fresh weight loss and the index of leaf greenness of the leafy culms of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Zebrinus’, Pennisetum alopecuroides and the leaves of Glyceria maxima ‘Variegata’.

Open access

Anna Sobocińska and Maciej Sobociński

Abstract

Spontaneuos combustion (or self-ignition) is the initiation of the burning process without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. This phenomenon often occurs during storage of such substances as hay, straw as well as coal or culm. Like any other type of fire, in addition to potential material losses, it also poses a threat to people. Thanks to the systematic monitoring of landfills using a thermal imaging camera, the dangerous effects of this phenomenon can be avoided. The article presents photos taken on a coal storage site where, as a result of both prolonged heat and wind exposition, a self-ignition phenomenon occurred that was detected early due to the use of thermovision.

Open access

Agnieszka Dąbrowska

ABSTRACT

The decorative value of 24 fescue (Festuca trachyphylla) ecotypes from natural habitats in the Lublin region was assessed in the years 2004-2011. Plants with desirable ornamental characteristics were selected and the cuttings were planted in experimental plots in the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Botanical Garden in Lublin, where they grew in uniform habitat conditions. During the study years, 18 morphological traits that determine the decorative value of grasses were analysed; 11 quantitative traits (length and number of the culm, length of the panicle, number of spikelets in the panicle, number of vegetative stems, length, width and thickness of the leaf blade, length and width of the cauline leaf and diameter of the tuft) and seven qualitative traits (plant growth habit, greenness index of the leaf blade [SPAD], winter greenness, culm colour, waxy coating on the leaf blade, flowering periods and plant condition after 8 years). The analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits demonstrated that F. trachyphylla is a morphologically variable species. The variability is mainly manifested in the inflorescence morphology, length of the leaf blades and number of culms, which have been statistically corroborated by the results of the ANOVA analysis. A considerable degree of variability was also exhibited by plant habit, colour of leaves and culm, wax deposits on the leaves and flowering period. The high morphological variability of this species allowed for the selection of two interesting types among the plant individuals studied, which were characterised by desirable decorative traits. The most decorative features of the selected ecotypes include the shape and colour of the leaves and the plant habit.