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Jennifer Dykema, Dana Garbarski, Ian F. Wall and Dorothy Farrar Edwards

Facebook Research.” Computers in Human Behavior 57: 82–92. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.008 (accessed April 2019). Landis, J.R. and G.G. Koch. 1977. “The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data.” Biometrics 33: 159–174. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2529310 . Lelkes, Y. and R. Weiss. 2015. “Much Ado about Acquiescence: The Relative Validity and Reliability of Construct-Specific and Agree-Disagree Questions.” Research and Politics 2: 1–8. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168015604173 . Liu, M., S. Lee, and F

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The ›Head of Household‹

A Long Normative History of a Statistical Category in the U.K

Kerstin Brückweh

Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, New York 2008, p. 100. This sounds like a pragmatic solution with little regard to the social relationships of the actual human beings living in a household. However, there are indeed power relations within a household (e.g. between parents and children). Social scientists also observed these everyday asymmetries and therefore constructed a hierarchy in social classifications when they placed the household in a specific class according to the ›Head of Household‹ or the ›Household Reference Person‹, the ›Chief Wage Earner

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Sameh Said-Metwaly, Wim Van den Noortgate and Eva Kyndt

-83. *Baer, J. (1996). The effects of task-specific divergent-thinking training. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 30, 183-187. *Baer, J. (1998). The case for domain specificity in creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 173-177. *Baer, J. (2012). Domain specificity and the limits of creativity theory. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 46, 16-29. doi: 10.1002/jocb.002 *Baer, J. (2015). The importance of domain-specific expertise in creativity. Roeper Review, 37, 165-178. doi: 10

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Limits of Understanding in the Study of Lost Martial Arts

Epistemological Reflections on the Mediality of Historical Records of Technique and the Status of Modern (Re-)Constructions

Eric Burkart

Abstract

The paper is organised around the notion of embodied technique. The recent attempts to formulate scientific methodologies for the reconstruction of medieval fighting techniques based on a study of premodern fight books raise questions about the epistemological status of these (re)constructed techniques developed by modern practitioners of Historical European Martial Arts (HEMA).

Approaching the subject from a perspective of cultural history and martial arts studies, the following questions are discussed: What is technique and how is it related to practice? How is technique acquired and transmitted? How can technique be recorded? And finally, how can historical records of technique be understood, interpreted and converted into practice?

Following Ben Spatz, technique is defined as the knowledge content of specific practices and the semiotic references between practice, technique, and symbols referring to embodied technique are discussed. By looking at the intersubjective communication of subjective fighting skills and relying on the work of Michael Polanyi, the possibility to record the “tacit knowing” of these skills as explicit knowledge is questioned. Given the low knowledge content of the fight books in regard to the execution of the referenced techniques, modern HEMA techniques therefore are to be addressed as purely modern constructions based on modern fighting practices instead of as reconstructions of medieval technique. The discourses in HEMA are also compared to a similar debate in musicology, where the status and the “authenticity” of attempts to recreate the sound of medieval music based on interpretations of early musical notation systems was vividly discussed until the early 2000s.

Fighting techniques are furthermore addressed as elements of complex fighting systems that only exist within a given historical culture of fighting and are transformed when transferred to another societal context.

Open access

Osinkina Olena and Podvysotskaya Tamara

Social Indices in Risks Estimations of Financial Crisis: Case of Transition Economies

The main purpose of our research is to investigate the empirical evidence of global financial crises influence on social sector development. A specific question guiding the research was to find the most vulnerable aspects of social sector in transition economies countries and construct a complex social indicator which would allow to estimate the dynamics of social sector development in pre-crises period and determine the appropriate policy measures to minimize the negative consequences in period of after-crises recovering.

As we do not have an extended data for the period after crises, for now we are not able to do any credible conclusions for the post-crises development of different aspects of social sector, but we can do cross-country comparison.

Open access

Elżbieta Łukasiewicz

. Johnson, K. (2005). Speaker normalization in speech perception. In D. B. Pisoni & R. E. Remez (Eds.), The Handbook of Speech Perception (pp. 363-389). Oxford: Blackwell. Joos, M. A. (1948). Acoustic phonetics. Language , 24, supplement 2, 1-136. Jusczyk, P. W. (1993). From language general to language specific capacities. The WRAPSA model of how speech perception develops. Journal of Phonetics , 21, 3-28. Labov, W. (1972). Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of

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Lindsay A. Renfro, Axel M. Grothey, James Paul, Irene Floriani, Franck Bonnetain, Donna Niedzwiecki, Takeharu Yamanaka, Ioannis Souglakos, Greg Yothers and Daniel J. Sargent

Abstract

Purpose: Clinical trials are expensive and lengthy, where success of a given trial depends on observing a prospectively defined number of patient events required to answer the clinical question. The point at which this analysis time occurs depends on both patient accrual and primary event rates, which typically vary throughout the trial's duration. We demonstrate real-time analysis date projections using data from a collection of six clinical trials that are part of the IDEA collaboration, an international preplanned pooling of data from six trials testing the duration of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer, and we additionally consider the hypothetical impact of one trial's early termination of follow-up.

Patients and Methods: In the absence of outcome data from IDEA, monthly accrual rates for each of the six IDEA trials were used to project subsequent trial-specific accrual, while historical data from similar Adjuvant Colon Cancer Endpoints (ACCENT) Group trials were used to construct a parametric model for IDEA's primary endpoint, disease-free survival, under the same treatment regimen. With this information and using the planned total accrual from each IDEA trial protocol, individual patient accrual and event dates were simulated and the overall IDEA interim and final analysis times projected. Projections were then compared with actual (previously undisclosed) trial-specific event totals at a recent census time for validation. The change in projected final analysis date assuming early termination of follow-up for one IDEA trial was also calculated.

Results: Trial-specific predicted event totals were close to the actual number of events per trial for the recent census date at which the number of events per trial was known, with the overall IDEA projected number of events only off by eight patients. Potential early termination of follow-up by one IDEA trial was estimated to postpone the overall IDEA final analysis date by 9 months.

Conclusions: Real-time projection of the final analysis time during a trial, or the overall analysis time during a trial collaborative such as IDEA, has practical implications for trial feasibility when these projections are translated into additional time and resources required.

Open access

Dejan Cigale, Barbara Lampič and Irma Potočnik-Slavič

.1111/1467-9663.00072. [23] Grykień, S. (1999). Tourist farms in Lower Silesia, Poland. GeoJournal . 46(3), 279-281. Doi: 10.1023/A:1007056310032. [24] Halfacree, K. (2006). Rural space: constructing a three-fold architecture. In Handbook of Rural Studies (pp. 44-62). Thousand Oaks: Sage. [25] Hardy, A. L. & Beeton, R. J. S. (2001). Sustainable tourism or maintainable tourism: Managing resources for more than average outcomes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism . 9(3), 168-192. Doi: 10.1080/09669580108667397. [26] Hummelbrunner, R

Open access

Jana Musilová and Stanislav Hronek

Abstract

As widely accepted, justified by the historical developments of physics, the background for standard formulation of postulates of physical theories leading to equations of motion, or even the form of equations of motion themselves, come from empirical experience. Equations of motion are then a starting point for obtaining specific conservation laws, as, for example, the well-known conservation laws of momenta and mechanical energy in mechanics. On the other hand, there are numerous examples of physical laws or equations of motion which can be obtained from a certain variational principle as Euler-Lagrange equations and their solutions, meaning that the \true trajectories" of the physical systems represent stationary points of the corresponding functionals.

It turns out that equations of motion in most of the fundamental theories of physics (as e.g. classical mechanics, mechanics of continuous media or fluids, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, string theory, etc.), are Euler-Lagrange equations of an appropriately formulated variational principle. There are several well established geometrical theories providing a general description of variational problems of different kinds. One of the most universal and comprehensive is the calculus of variations on fibred manifolds and their jet prolongations. Among others, it includes a complete general solution of the so-called strong inverse variational problem allowing one not only to decide whether a concrete equation of motion can be obtained from a variational principle, but also to construct a corresponding variational functional. Moreover, conservation laws can be derived from symmetries of the Lagrangian defining this functional, or directly from symmetries of the equations.

In this paper we apply the variational theory on jet bundles to tackle some fundamental problems of physics, namely the questions on existence of a Lagrangian and the problem of conservation laws. The aim is to demonstrate that the methods are universal, and easily applicable to distinct physical disciplines: from classical mechanics, through special relativity, waves, classical electrodynamics, to quantum mechanics.

Open access

Colin Robertson

Multilingual Legislation in the European Union. EU and National Legislative-Language Styles and Terminology

EU law is multilingual and multi-cultural. It is initially drafted in one language, now frequently English, often by non-native speakers and then translated into the other EU languages. Amendments may be proposed that are drafted in a different language. The result is a single multilingual text created in 23 language versions that are authentic within the context of the EU legal order. These circumstances have led EU legal language to develop its own terminology and legislative style as a separate genre.

One question is to identify different national cultural drafting styles and traditions that lie behind the creation of EU legislative texts and terminology. The Member State traditions vary, yet they merge in the EU legislative texts. In order to assist in the understanding of EU legislative texts, it is useful to reflect on how they are constructed and the features and requirements lying behind their creation, interpretation and transposition.

One approach is to consider a specific piece of EU text in a range of languages and consider how the text is reproduced in each language in terms of structure and terminology. Since the original draft is frequently made by non-native speakers and then translated into the other EU languages, which are bound by the structure of the base version, we obtain little information from it about divergent national linguistic and legislative methods. However, if the EU text is a directive which is transposed into national law, we should be able also to look at the national implementing legislation intended to implement the directive. The implementing texts are produced within the national legal context and, one assumes, aim at similar results, as laid down by the directive. Thus it could be expected that they should provide vehicles for study between the national systems and between each national system and the EU legal order. The paper explores these ideas to see where they lead.