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Open access

Lucian Ioan Tarnu

Abstract

Liberty of thinking is an absolute characteristic of human rights manifested in our society and it has both an individual dimension - meaning having opinions and beliefs - and a social and political dimension - if we think at their development.

Liberty of thinking, conscience and religion represent some of the basic components of a democratic society. This also occurs as the most important elements of the identity of a nation and it contributes significantly to its proper development.

Human conscience can not and should not be directed by administrative means, but it should always be the result of its liberty of thinking and revealing thoughts. As it is regulated at the constitutional level, liberty of conscience has a complex content. It is one of the oldest citizen liberties, one of tradition, which is known under either its proper name or various aspects, such as liberty of speech, liberty of association and liberty of press.

Open access

Josef Kuře

References ANDERSON, R. M. et al. (2006): Pharmacists and Conscientious Objection. In: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal , 16(4), pp. 379–396. ASCH, A. (2006): Policy and Politics: Two Cheers for Conscience Exceptions. In: Hastings Center Report , 36(6), pp. 11–12. BEAUCHAMP, T. L. & CHILDRESS, J. F. (2001): Principles of Biomedical Ethics . Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 5 th edition. CAMPBELL, C. S., HARE, J. & MATTHEWS, P. (1995): Conflicts of Conscience: Hospice and Assisted Suicide. In: The Hastings Center Report

Open access

Eckart Voland

on child survival. Evol Hum Behav 29:1-18. Simon HA. 1990. A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism. Science 250: 1665-68. Soltis J. 2004. The signal functions of early infant crying. Behav Brain Sci 27:443-90. Strassmann BI, Clarke AL. 1998. Ecological constraints on marriage in rural Ireland. Evol Hum Behav 19:33-55. Strohm P. 2011. Conscience - A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taylor LR. 2004. Maintaining the matriline: Children’s birth

Open access

Sergio García Guillem

Abstract

The discovery of F.M. Dostoyevsky by young E. M. Cioran marks a turning point for a better understanding of his first Romanian work and his later production in French. His first work, Pe culmile disperării [On the Heights of Despair] (1934) has a tragic breath, typically dostoyevskyan, which reminds us of the tragical and sick conscience of the (anti)hero of his Notes from the Underground (1864).

Open access

Josef Römelt

Abstract

Since Pope Franziskus, there is an approach between Protestant and Catholic theology exactly in the gaze on sexual-ethical questions. However, this “new” proximity stands in continuity with the Catholic thinking, because it is not simply about the appeal on a purely subjective and quite private conscience in the positions of Pope Franziskus and of renewed moral-theological teachings. Also Protestant theology always has faced fidelity in love and partnership under God’s assistance - within all human fragility and limitedness. More clearly than it, however, the theology in Catholic tradition has described exactly this solidity of Christian experience in the modes of obligation and objective bonding. Freedom and personal responsibility must be evaluated in many areas of modern society in a new manner today. In the ecological ethics the self-linkage to standards is discussed, which orientate the own lifestyle on the natural balance for to safeguard human life in community with the nature, for example. In the formation of love and family, it needs the freely approved relationship at objective social and biographical contexts, which enable succeeding relationship basically.

Open access

Fernando Arlettaz

Abstract

The Parliamentary Assembly and the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe have been promoting the recognition of conscientious objection, mainly for military service but also in other domains, since the 1960s. However, for more than fifty years the precedents of the European Commission and the European Court of Human Rights repeatedly denied that conscientious objection could be found implicit in article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights. In 2011 the Court changed its standpoint and energetically affirmed that conscientious objection, at least for military service, is a derivation of freedom of conscience and religion, and that European states are thus bound to incorporate it to their internal legislations.

Open access

Dumitru Moldovan

Abstract

Quantum physics requires a rethinking of basic postulates of economic science. The article presents the fundamental ideas of the hypothesis theory “The economy of creative imagination”. Also, it identifies the reevaluation methods of mechanistic economic paradigms that were formulated through analogy with classical mechanics. The paper shows that the economic process is performed at two levels - first in individual imagination, and then in traditional workshops and factories. In individual’s imagination, real goods are “truly created” at the subatomic level. As determinism principle dominates big material objects and the uncertainty principle operates at the quantum level, the author believes that rethinking the economic science refers primarily to the discovery of laws that enable us to predict the evolution of economic phenomena within the limitations imposed by the uncertainty principle.

Open access

Orsolya Szeibert

Abstract

Hungarian family law is regulated primarily in the Family Act today. This Act was accepted in 1952 but as it has been modified several times it serves the legal interests of family and family members in harmony with European standards. Nevertheless, the idea of codifying a new Civil Code in 1998 raised the question whether family law should have been included in a new Civil Code. The scientific opinions were diverging on this issue at that time, but later on it became accepted that family law should get back into the corpus of a Civil Code. The article gives an analysis of the developments and most recent changes.

Open access

Rafał Szmytka

Abstract

The second half of the 16th century is regarded as the decisive moment in the history of the Low Countries. The politics of religious intolerance and financial oppression practiced by the Habsburg governors resulted in protests and, finally, in the open revolt of the Provinces under the leadership of the princes of Orange and Nassau. The aim of this work is to follow and reconstruct the ideas of political thought accompanying the events leading to the rise of a new state. In the dicussed state forming process the main emphasis was put on the issues of freedom, states, and sovereignty, as well as on the concept of the possibility of dismissing the obedience inherited from the medieval privileges. These concepts and terms created a special sort of dictionary of the Dutch political thought.

Open access

Vilius Dranseika and Ivars Neiders

(4), pp. 27–35. ENGELHARDT Jr., H. T. (1999): Redefining death: The mirage of consensus. In: S. J. Younger, R. M. Arnold & R. Schapiro (eds.): The definition of death: Contemporary controversies . Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, pp. 319–331. GLANNON, W. (2007): Bioethics and the brain . Oxford: Oxford University Press. GRISSOM, R. J. & KIM, J. J. (2014): Effect sizes for research: Univariate and multivariate applications . New York: Routledge. KATO, Y. (2013): Conscience in health care and the definitions of death. In: Croatian