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Regula Schmid

Abstract

The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, it concentrates on information pertaining to the type and quality of an average urban soldier’s gear. Although the results of this analysis are only preliminary – at this point, it is not possible to produce methodologically sound statistics –, the value of the lists as sources is readily evident, as only a smattering of the once massive quantity of actual objects has survived down to the present time.

Open access

Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska and Joanna Feder-Kubis

Abstract

Weeds constitute a huge group of undesirable plants, widespread throughout the world. They represent a big problem for most farmers, who implement different methods to fight against them. Thanks to their wide occurrence, weeds however, can be an excellent indicator of the quality of soil and the whole environment where they are present. In this paper, we present the impact of four alkylimidazolium chlorides with a natural terpene component introduced into the soil: (1R,2S,5R)-(–)-menthol and alkyl substituents containing 1, 4, 9 or 12 carbon atoms, on the growth and development of selected weed species. Compounds with the highest phytotoxic activity towards gallant soldier, white goosefoot and common sorrel were chlorides with methyl and butyl substituents, while compounds with nonyl and dodecyl substituents demonstrated a weak effect on these weeds. Phytotoxicity of the salts tested was largely dependent on the applied concentration of the compound and the genetic make-up of plant species used in the experiment. This was reflected in the inhibition of plants’ length and their roots, as well as changes in the content of dry matter and photosynthetic pigments.

Open access

Martin Pták

Abstract

The presented article describes two group coin-finds from south Bohemia. The first group of coins was discovered via exhumation of a common grave in the surroundings of Horní Lhota near Lásenice dating back to May 1945. It is represented by cash (or remaining part of it) owned by a German soldier in May 1945. The second group of coins was found at the Radíš hillfort, and it is represented by pieces in a wallet evidently lost on a trip or during forest works sometimes between 1949 and 1953. The article emphasizes importance and necessity of documentation even of these late modern coin-finds.

Open access

Irena Ndreu

Abstract

This paper aims at presenting a comprehensive overview of Venetian Albanians and the interplay of Venetian language in their everyday communication. In the everyday relations between authorities and the inhabitants of this province, language became a barrier to understanding at a basic level. The local Roman language spoken over e long period of time in Arbëria was slowly substituted by the Venetian dialect. Patricians had knowledge of it before the Venetian period, since otherwise they would haveb had to rely on translators or soldiers and common clerks who were bilingual. Other language problems Venetians faced with language concerned Serbian in translation offices, a language widely used in Arbëria. It is most likely that there was such an office in Shkodra where in 1409, Ginus Juban, aka Gjin Jubani, appears as a translator. Although he bears a typical Arbër name, it cannot absolutely be stated what his official language was. The superiority of the Venetian language in the judicial and commercial areas had an effect in the Arbëria language as well. Serbian, which had played an important role under the Balshajs among bishops as their official language, became exctinct with the fall of these states. Greek was marginalized from Durrës to further south, where there were found islands of Greek settlements around the city of Vlora.

Open access

David Worrall

Abstract

This paper will consider the connections between different types of theatre and theatricality under conditions of war in Philadelphia in 1778 during the British occupation. The ethical cleansing of the title refers to the Mischianza, the giant medieval tournament and naval regatta on the Delaware organized by the British on the eve of their departure in May 1778. Staged theatre, improvised by the personnel of both sides with army and navy soldiers performing texts from the regular British 18th-century dramatic repertoire, was also a feature common both to the winter encampment in Valley Forge and to the British in their conventional theatre in Philadelphia. The Mischianza was an extension of these types of theatricals. What I will be arguing is that a study of the connections between theatre, performance and theatricality allows us to model the disparate forces at work in a society experiencing the irreversible social and political changes of war. The kinds of theatrical modelling I am suggesting will attempt to describe a distributed, dialogic, set of performance inscriptions out of which Philadelphia emerged as an urban space in the post-colonial phase. In short, both the theatricals on both sides, the Mischianza included, were attempts at territorializing space, inscribing ownership, allegiance and cultural value through the repetition of performance. The most promising theoretical model for analyzing these complex cultural interactions arises from the synthesizing the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in Manuel DeLanda in A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity.

Open access

Ilga Kokorīte, Māris Kļaviņš, Jānis Šīre, Oskars Purmalis and Aija Zučika

Soil Pollution with Trace Elements in Territories of Military Grounds in Latvia

Contamination of land used for military activities can significantly differ from that of municipal and industrial land, both in the intensity and type. Largely this is due to the intensity of activities even in a comparatively large surface area, and also by use of substances and materials not common in civil practice. Pollution from military grounds can affect not only soldiers, but also adjacent territories and water resources. In this study, concentrations of trace elements in the soil, water and higher vegetation in former Soviet army military territories were surveyed. The presence of point sources was found, and in a few cases the pollution is intensively spreading into deeper soil horizons and groundwater.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić

Abstract

Owing to the enforced sanitary laws, the health care service in Serbia evolved systematically till the beginning of the Balkan Wars (1912). At the early phase of this period, in general hospitals dermatovenereology diseases accounted for 10.5% (Užice) to 45% (Zaječar), while venereal diseases prevailed (83.3% and 16.7%, respectively). In the period from 1880 to 1897, there were 12.354 Serbian soldiers with venereal diseases: 56.9% had Gonorrhoea, 28.9% had Ulcus molle, and 14.2% had Syphilis. The first official and professional statistics on Syphilis was done in 1898, and according to the report, 0.26% of the population of Serbia was affected by Syphilis: 1.42% in the Timok Region and 0.27% in Belgrade. Nevertheless, these data must be taken with caution, being very low. In regions with endemic Syphilis, tardive and tertiary Syphilis prevailed, whereas out of these regions, secondary forms of the disease were most common. In the period from 1882 to 1910, according to the reports of the Sanitary Department of the Ministry of Defense, skin diseases were reported in 3.1% to 15.2% of all hospitalized soldiers. Leprosy was diagnosed in 15 cases in Serbia; notification of all cases became compulsory in 1890. From 1912 to 1918, Serbia was at war, and the most common skin disease was a dermatozoonosis - pediculosios (lice infestation), which caused a tragic epidemic of exanthematous typhus in the army, but also among civilians. It was estimated that there were 500.000 sick persons, out of which over 150.000 died, including 56% of physicians and other medical staff working in hospitals. Disinfestation was the main treatment modality, using steam in so called “Serbian barrel”. At the Thessaloniki front line, in the Dermatovenereology Department, there were 41 dermatoses or groups of dermatoses, affecting the hospitalized soldiers, but scabies was scarce, owing to good hygiene. After the end of the First World War, the Serbian army and population were decimated, and the country ruined. Reconstruction of the country began once again.

Open access

Rino Bandlitz Johansen, Monica Martinussen and Nils Kvilvang

References Adler, A. B., Thomas, J. L., & Castro, C. A. (2005). Measuring up: Comparing self-reports with unit records for assessing soldier performance. Military Psychology, 17, 3-24. Bartone, P. T., Snook, S. A., & Tremble, T. R. (2002). Cognitive and personality predictors of leader performance in West Point cadets. Military Psychology, 14, 321-338. doi: 10.1207/S15327876MP1404_6 Birkinshaw, J., & Gibson, C. (2004). Building ambidexterity into an organization. Harvard Business Review, Summer, 47

Open access

Aleksandra R. Vojvodic and Gordana Dedic

References 1. Jones N, Seddon R, Fear N, McAllister P, Wessely S, Greenberg N. Leadership, cohesion, morale and the mental health of UK Armed Forces in Afganistan. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 2012;75(1):49-59 . 2. Pickett T, Rothman D, Crawford EF, Brancu M, Fairbank JA, Kudler HS. Mental Health Among Military Personnel and Veterans. N C Med J. 2015;76(5):299-306. 3. Dedić G, Kostić P. Causes of frustration of soldiers in adaptation period on military environment. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2001

Open access

David Ramiro Troitiño and Archil Chochia

The Hague, May, 1948 . London: Hollis & Carter, 1949. 20. Churchill, Winston. The Second World War . Vol. 3. Houghton Mifflin, 1950. 21. Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis . Vol. 1. Scribner, 1963. 22. Coombs, David, Minnie Churchill, and Winston Churchill. Sir Winston Churchill: His life and His Paintings . Running Press, 2004. 23. D’Este, Carlo. Warlord: The Fighting Life of Winston Churchill, from Soldier to Statesman . Penguin, 2010. 24. Dinan, Desmond. Europe Recast: A History of European Union . Vol. 373. Basingstoke